Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10: 98-103. 2006.
The Contributon of Wld Edible Plants to Human Nutrtion in the Black Sea Regon of Turkey
*Tugba Bayrak Ozbucak,1 Hamd Guray Kutbay2 and Oznur Ergen Akcn1
1 University of Ondokuz Mays, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, 52750, Ordu, Turkey
2 University of Ondokuz Mays, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, 55139, Kurupelit-Samsun, Turkey
*Corresponding author: E-mail: [email protected]
Issued 3 April 2006
Wild edible plants are very widespread in Black Sea Region of Turkey and people has been consumed wild edible plants as food and used them for some medicinal purposes due to economical and geographical reasons. In this study, wild edible plants which used as food in Ordu and Samsun cities which have the highest population density in Black Sea Region were investigated. In the study area 52 wild edible plants belonging to 26 families were collected from different localities. The highest species numbers were found for Lamiaceae family (10 species). Lamiaceae is followed by Asteraceae (5 species), Apiaceae and Boraginaceae (4 species), Liliaceae (3 species), Orchidaceae and Polygonaceae (2 species).
Key Words: Edible plants, Ordu, Samsun, Turkey.
Turkey is situated at the junction of three important phytogeographic regions, namely Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian, and Euro-Siberian, each with its own endemic species and natural ecosystems. These include Caucasian mountain mixed temperate rain forests and alpine ecosystems of the North East Black Sea Coast (Davis 1965).
The combination of a moderate climate which is at the junction of sub-tropical and moderate zones, rugged topography, varied geology, and geographic proximity to both Europe and the Near East help account for the uniqueness and complexity of plant life in the northeastern Anatolia region (Turkey). Two parts of Turkey are included in Conservation Internationals 25 World biodiversity hotspots. Southern and a small part of northeastern Anatolia are included in the Mediterranean Basin and Caucasus hotspots, respectively
The plants have been used as food, dye, ornamental and medicinal purposes by people since old-ages. The human population has been increased day by day and as a result of this people has faced with poverty problem. Williams (1993) emphasized the need to preserve new plant resources to broaden the biological diversity in human nutrition. Wild plant species provide minerals, fibre, vitamins and essential fatty acids and enhance taste and colour in diets. Wild edible plants can also be used to prevent chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes) in the general population, as well as diseases due to under nutrition (anemia, stunting) (Green 1992). Many local wild plants have been used as salad and vegetable dishes prepared in traditional recipes in Turkish cuisine (Wetherit, 1992). Ethno botanical studies are becoming more popular throughout the world, and these studies are focused on documenting the traditional uses of plants by native cultures (Ozgen et al 2004).
Isk et al (1995), Bagc (2000), Duran et al (2001) and Dogan et al (2004) has been reported many wild plants have been used as food in Turkey, especially in Black Sea Region. Yldrm et al (2001) determined nutrient values of some widely used wild plants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was carried out between 2003-2005 years in Ordu and Samsun cities which have high population density in Black Sea Region of Turkey. In addition to this, the region is blessed with a great diversity of wild edible plants and people have been consumed as food and used them for some medicinal purposes due to economical and geographical reasons (Ylmaz and Deveci 2004).
During the study period, we interviewed with local people most of them are middle aged or older. One hundred sixteen people were interviewed in this study. So the preparation and usage ways of wild edible plants for consumption were determined. The species were identified in the laboratory. Taxonomic nomenclature followed that of Davs (1965-1988). 52 wild edible plants belonging to 26 families were collected from different localities around Ordu and Samsun cities between 2003-2005 years.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The botanical families with the highest number of utilized plant species were the Lamiaceae, Asteraceae (5 species) and Apiaceae and Boraginaceae (4 species). These families were followed by Liliaceae (3 species), Orchidaceae and Polygonaceae (2 species). The parts used and method of using of wild edible plant species in the study area are summarized in Table 1.
Falcaria vulgaris, Arum maculatum, Cichorium intybus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium foliosum, Malva neglecta, M. sylvestris, Polygonum cognatum, Rumex tuberosus, Anagallis arvensis and Urtica urens are consumed as meal. P. cognatum is stewed with rice and onion. Stem, leaf and branches of these species were cooked with oil, onion, ground meat and several spices. C. foliosum, M. neglecta, M. sylvestris, R. tuberosus, P. oleracea, A. arvensis and U. urens is consumed considerably high proportion by the local people.
Artemisia absunthium, Tragopogon buphthalmoides, Anchusa azurea, Trachystemon orientalis, Euphorbia chamaesyce, Cucurbita pepo and Ornithogalum sigmoideum are eaten roasted. On the contrary to the other species, T. buphthalmoides, T. orientalis and O. sigmoideum are firstly boiled with egg and corn flour and roasted later. C. pepo is consumed with yoghurt after roasting.
The leaves of certain species are used to prepare a traditional Turkish dish called dolma. In this case, the broad leaves of plants are wrapped around a stuffing mixture made from rice and minced meat (Simsek et al, 2004). The leaves of T. orientalis are scalded firstly and stuffed with a mixture of corn flour, onion and oil. C. pepo is stuffed with rice, onion, pepper, pounded wheat and meat and olive oil is added to this mixture. Senecio vulgaris, Galega officinalis and Silene vulgaris are stewed with different vegetables like potatoes, carrot or pounded meat. These species are also stuffed with rice and meat.
Amaranthus lividus, Portulaca oleracea, Erodium cicutarium, Fumaria officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Cichorium intybus, and Oxalis acetosella are consumed raw as salad. P. oleracea is also consumed with yoghurt and garlic. The leaves of F. officinalis and E. cicutarium and E. italicum are mixed with cheese and meat and roasted.
Stem and leaves of T. orientalis, stem of Heracleum platytaenium, leaves and branches of F. vulgaris are pickled and consumed raw or cooked with olive oil.
U. urens and E. chamaesyce is consumed as soup. U. urens is firstly boiled and later cooked with oil, corn flavour and water.
The leaves of Cynoglossum oficinale, R. tuberosus and T. buphthalmoides, stem of H. platytaenium, fruits of Sambucus nigra and stem and leaves of C. foliosum are consumed raw.
The fruits of Rhus coriaria, the leaves of Mentha longifolia and above ground parts of Satureja spicigera are dried, grinded and used to make flavour and scent.
Several plants can be used for other purposes. For example, the leaves of Salvia spicigera and other Salvia species are scalded with boiling water and consumed for refreshment. Young tubers of Orchis anatolica and Serapias vomaracea are dried and grinded and poured with boiling water and usually mixed with milk and this mixture is called sahlep.
According to the results of that study wild edible plants have been widely consumed in Samsun and Ordu cities and fortunately ethnobotanical knowledge are still alive like other parts of Turkey (Simsek et al 2004). However, the use of wild edible plants is generally widespread among elderly people traditionally and in danger of vanishing in the future. In addition to this, natural vegetation is widely distributed due to anthropogenic factors mainly grazing, fire, urbanization, use of pesticides and herbicides etc. So that local and government authorities should be make effort to protect traditional folk medicine and biological diversity. Although there are many choices of vegetables sources, today many of them are neglected because of the preference towards uniform characteristic in modern agricultural technology and marketing (Yldrm et al, 2001).
TABLE 1. Wild Edible Plants Traditionally Consumed in Ordu and Samsun Cities.
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