Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 820-826. 2008.
Pharmacognostical and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl.
Krishnaveni, A1 and Santh Rani Thaakur2
1Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy
Madurai Medical College, Madurai, Tamilnadu
2Department of Pharmacology, Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visvavidyalayam
(Women’s University), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
1For correspondence: [email protected]
Issued 30 October 2008
Pharmacognostical parameters for the leaves of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, physio-chemical constants, extractive values with different solvents, fluorescence analysis of dry powder, its reaction after treatment with chemical reagents under visible light and UVlight at 254 nm and 366 nm. Prelimnary phyto chemical studies on the leaves Sapindus trifoliatus was studied. The determination of these characters will aid future investigtors in their Pharmacological analyses of this species.
Keywords: Pharmacognostic, phytochemical, Sapindus trifoliatus, Sapindaceae.
Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl is a medium size to large decidous tree, found in Peninsular India especially in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka1. It is commonly known as Soap nut tree and Reetha in Hindi2,3. Seeds contain11.5%saponin, 45% fixed oil and 10%glucose. Saponin glycoside emarginotoside has been isolated from the aqueous extract of the fruit of Sapindus trifoliatus. The saponin glycoside hederagin3-o (3-o- acetyl-beta–D-xylose was isolated from pericarp of Sapindus trifoliatus 4.
Table 1. Ethnomedical information of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl.
But no pharmacognostical work has been done so far. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the Pharmacognostic parameters on the leaves of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl in both whole form and powdered form.
Table 2. Macroscopy of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .
Materials and Methods
The plant material was collected from the foothills of Tirumlahills, Tiruapthi.A.P.in the month May 2007.The plant was identified and authenticated by Dr.Madhav Shetty, Taxnomist, Dept of Botany, S.V. University, Tiruapthi. A herbarium was preserved in the department for further reference. The leaves were separated, dried, coarsely powdered passed through sieve no 40 and stored in a closed container for further use. All reagents used were of analytical grade obtained from S.D. Fine Chemicals Ltd., Mumbai.
The macroscopical characters (size, shape colour, odour, texture, venation margin, base, apex and petiole)of the leaves were observed4. Then, anatomical study, powder was identified with routine reagents to study the lignified cells, trichomes, stomata, fibres etc. Quantitative microscopy was determined by methods prescribed by Trease and Evans5,6.
The ash values, extractive values with various reagents and were determined as per the Indian Pharmacopoeia6. Extractive values were performed with various solvents like petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alcohol and water was performed as per standard procedure7. Measurement of vein islet number, vein termination number, stomatal number, stomatal index and length of trichome were determined8. The behaviour of powdered leaves with various chemical reagents was studied7. The fluorescence characters of the powder with various acids were observed under visible light and UV light as per the proceduere9. Preliminary phytochemical tests of the powder/extracts were performed using specific reagents through standard procedures10,11.
Analysis and Discussion
Leaves were green, odourless with slight bitter taste. Leaves are of size 7.5-18cm in length, shape- lanceolate in shape, glabrous surface ,acute – apex, equal base, entire margin, reticulate venation and petioled . The physical constants such as total ash value
(10.63%) acid insoluble ash ( 2.65% ) water soluble ash (8.69% ) and extractive values are specific identification. The soluble extractive values with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate, ethanol and water were (1.4%,1.2%,2%,2.8%and 5.4%) respectively, which indicates the nature of constituents present. Quantitative microscopical study also give valuable information regarding specific leaf constants such as vein islet(11.5/mm2),vein termination number(13.8/mm2) stomatal number (6.5/mm2 and 14/mm2) upper and lower epidermis respectively. Length of trichome (20.43µ-- 40.79µ--80.86µ). The behaviour of leaf powder upon treatment with different chemical reagents was also observed and reported in Table 6. Fluorescence studies of various powders with various reagents revealed the presence of green & orange fluorescence with Conc. sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide respectively under UV light at 254 nm and 366 nm.
Powder analysis of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .
It is pale green, fine, odourless powder with slight bitter taste. The powder microscopy reveals the presence of trichomes, fibres, epidermal cells with anticlinal walls, calcium oxalate crystals and spiral thickenings were recorded.
Table 3. Determination of Ash Values Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .
Table 4. Determination of Extractive Values Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .
Table 5. Determination of phytoconstants Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl.
Similarly the fluorescence characteristic of the leaf powdered leaf, when treated with various chemical reagents and its extracts have also been extensively studied. The extractive values of the powder with different solvent were determined and its result was reported in Table 6.
The various qualitative chemical tests of powder, ethanol extract and aqueous extract (Table 7) indicates the presence of sterols, flavanoids, phenols, tannins and saponins in large amount whereas aromatic acids, carbohydrates,triterpenoids, gums and mucilage and volatile oils were totally absent in the leaf extract of this plant.
Table 6. Behavior of Powdered leaves of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl . with different
Table 7. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .
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