Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 475-79 , 2009.
Traditional Phytotherapy used in the Treatment of Malaria by Rural People of Bhopal, District of Madhya Pradesh, India
Dwivedi A.1*, Patel R. 2, Jhade D., 3 Sachan R. 4and Argal A. 5
1, NRI Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bhopal, M.P.-India
2, Nanda College of Pharmacy, Erode, T.N.-India
3, Dept. of Pharmacy, Chauksey Engineering College, Bilaspur, C.G.-India
4, Dept. of Pharmaceutics, VNS College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, M.P.-India
5, Principal, Rajiv Gandhi College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, M.P.-India
* Corresponding Author E.mail: [email protected]
Issued 01 April 2009
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium and transmitted through female Anopheles mosquito. The disease is common in rural areas. Although a number of synthetic medicines have been used for the treatment of malaria, but they have adverse effects and their high cost is beyond the reach of common people. It is, therefore, worthwhile to look towards antimalarial herbal drugs. Herbal drugs are cheaper, easily available and with no fear of any side effects. The present paper enumerates the herbs used in malaria by the rural people of Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh, India.
Keywords: Malarial, herbs, Bhopal, rural people.
Malaria is one of the major health problems. WHO estimates there are 300- 500 millions cases globally and 1.5- 2.7 millions death occur due to malaria each year, 90% of which are in Africa. In India the National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) was started in 1950, achieving near complete disappearance of the disease in 1960s (from 75 millions in 1950 to 0.1 million in 1960).1 However, due to development of insecticide resistance mosquitoes and other factors, it stages a comeback in the mid 1970s (96.47 millions in 1976) and continues to prevail in endemic/ sub endemic proportions in different areas, conceding that eradication of malaria is not possible. NMEP has been renamed National Antimalarial Programme (NAMP). In 2001 NAMP has reported 72 millions malaria cases, out of which 48% were due to P. falciparum. WHO estimates that actual number of malaria cases in India is 6 times more, i.e. 12-15 millions. The present work was conceived by us to explore the medicinal plants of Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh, India in the treatment of malaria by the rural villagers of the study site.
Following methods were adopted by the author during the course of present investigation.
1. The plants used by the rural people in the treatment of malaria were collected by the investigator from the different study sites during Jan-2008 to Sep-2008.
2. Field and survey work was made after carefully planned field trips. During the field trip personal interview was made between the author and informants. 2,3
4. Voucher specimen were collected from different study sites and preserved. 4
5. The plants were identified by Prof. Dr. S. N. DWIVEDI, Dept. of Botany, Janata PG College, A.P.S. University, Rewa, M.P. and are deposited in our institute.
6. Confirmation of the specimen was made with the help of floristic literature. 5,6,7
During the course of present investigation, the following study sites of Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh were selected (Henotia, Hataikheda, Bhandbada, Badwai, Jhagonia, Kokta, Semra, Bagroda, Jamina and Chana). These study sites were selected depending upon the density of flora and population in order to make the effective discussion with the informants for revealing the information regarding the usage of herbs in the treatment of malaria.
Abbr. OD= Once daily, BD= Twice daily, TDS=Thrice daily, TSF=Teaspoonful
Modern allopathic medicines used for the treatment of malaria have grave side effects and seldom damage the vital organs viz. spleen, liver, kidney etc. Obviously, the complete eradication of parasites from the human body is not possible by these drugs. The herbal treatment for malaria is cheaper with no fear of any side effects. Moreover, herbal drugs are more compatible to human body constitution and suits to the local and cultural need of people. The indigenous method of preparation maintains the purity of the drug. The essence of substance is never destroyed and is always present in balance amount, as nature might have prescribed it. It has been also observed that the herbs employed in malarial fever are bitter tonic, antipyretic, febrifuge and stimulate liver and spleen. However, more detailed clinical studies are required for the plants showing antimalarial actions, so the malaria can be treated effectively by use of plant based formulations and offered by the other people of our society. Therefore, the present work focuses the usage of herbs in curing the malaria fever.
The authors are thankful the rural people of Bhopal district for the lucid comment and discussion pertaining to the subject. Also, thankful to Dr. S. N. Dwivedi for the identification of plants.
<![if !supportLists]>7. Khare, C.P. (2004). Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants, Springes-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York.