Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14: 46-83, 2010.

 

 

Medicinal Plants Diversity and their Conservation Status in Wildlife Institute of India (WII) Campus, Dehradun

 

B.S. Adhikari*, M.M. Babu, P.L. Saklani and G.S. Rawat

 

Herbarium Section, Department of Habitat Ecology,

Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun 248 001, Uttarakhand

Phone 91 135 2640112-115, Fax 91 135 2640117

* Corresponding author:  adhikaribs@wii.gov.in

 

 

Issued: January 01, 2010

 

Abstract

 

The present paper deals with the status and distribution pattern of medicinal plants in Wildlife Institute of India campus, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Based on extensive literature survey, of the total (#605 plants) 63% are medicinal plants. These medicinal plants comprise of 63 trees, 55 shrubs, 208 herbs, 34 climbers, 3 ferns and 10 grasses belong to 94 families. Poaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae and Euphorbiaceae are the largest families and have more than 20 species of medicinal plants. Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Verbenaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae are the dominant families with high species diversity. The nativity of plants shows that 21 species are from Himalayan region and 101 from Indian oriental region, while remaining are from various parts of the world. Pyrus pashia and Rubia cordifolia have the distribution up to cool temperate region among trees and climbers, respectively. Among plant parts, bark, leaves and roots are mainly used for trees, shrubs and climbers, respectively. However, the entire plant of herbs, grasses and sedges and leaves and roots of ferns are used. Most of the species of trees, herbs and climbers are used for diarrhoea/dysentery, shrubs for cough/cold, grasses and sedges for fever and ferns for skin diseases. The conservation efforts have been discussed in the paper.

 

Keywords: Doon, Medicinal plants, Nativity, Uttarakhand, Wildlife Institute of India


Introduction

       The foot hills with wider valleys along the Himalayan range forms an ecotone, is bestowed with a variety of natural resources, which have been exploited by mankind since time immemorial relieving, suffering and curing ailments by trial and error. The history, religion and folklores are full of instances where the magical and curative properties of various plants have been narrated and based on speculations and superstitions the effectiveness of certain plants for different ailment was learnt (Humaun et al. 2006). Plant containing active chemical constituents (alkaloid, glycosides, saponins, essential oils, bitter principles, tannins and mucilages) in any of its part like root, stem, leaves, bark, fruit and seed, which produces a definite curing physiological response in the treatment of various ailments in humans and other animals, is regarded as medicinal plant.

      In India, several medical systems have evolved and prominent among these systems are Ayurveda, Siddha and the Unani Systems of Medicine. In different civilizations the contribution of floral biodiversity to health care has been well documented (Posey 1999). Because of the accelerated local, national and international interest in recent years the demand for medicinal and aromatic plants has increased manifolds and pharmaceutical industry views plant wealth as a source of income. Due to easy availability, no side-effects, and sometimes only source of health care, the demand for medicinal plants is increasing in both developing and developed countries.

According to Schippmann et al. (2002) more than 50000 species are used for medicinal purposes worldwide, of which almost 13% are flowering plants. Over 8000 plant species are used in traditional and modern medicine in India (Planning Commission 2000), and 90-95% collection of medicinal plants is from the wild, of which more than 70% collection involves destructive and unscientific extraction. Over exploitation of trade species, destructive way of collection, vulnerability due to anthropogenic pressure are some of the major threats to medicinal plants. In order to achieve sustainable harvest of medicinal plants and other non-timber forest products (food (wild edibles), fuel, fodder, timber, making agricultural tools, fiber, religious and various other purposes), a multi-disciplinary approach must be considered which include ecological, biological, socio-cultural and economical aspects of the species (Ghimire et al. 2004).

        The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimated that 80% of the populations rely on traditional medicines, mostly plant drugs, for their primary health care needs in developing countries. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants are issues on which immediate focus is required in the context of conserving biodiversity. Considering these facts it is important to know about the medicinal plants of the near by areas and become more crucial when the area is almost in the vicinity of the forest and well protected. Therefore, the present study deals with the status, altitudinal range, nativity, parts used, uses in various ailments and conservation efforts.

 

Materials and Methods

Study area

 

       The Wildlife Institute of India campus is located in the southern fringe of Dehradun city, a capital of Uttarakhand state. It lies between 77˚57’50” to 77˚58’45” E long. and 30˚16’40” to 30˚17’15” N lat. with an altitudinal range from 640-665m asl and covers an area of ca.88 hactare (Fig. 1). In general the vegetation of the campus is natural and semi-natural, represented by various successional stages e.g., grassland (Saccharum community, Cynodon community, Phragmites community, Imperata community, Typha community and mixed grass community with Lantana), scrubland (Lantana community and mixed shrub community), riverine forest (Sapium community and Broussonetia papyrifera community) and woodland of old sal community and coppice sal community. The campus is rich in its floral diversity (total 605 plants, which is almost one third of Doon valley flora. Among faunal diversity of the campus, 16 mammal species (half of them very occasionally), 295 species of birds (including migratory birds), 73 species of butterflies, 16 species of moths, 17 species of spiders, 21 species of reptiles and 11 species of amphibians have been recorded.

 

Climate, Geology and Soil

        The topography of the campus is dendritic type, small channels drain in to Asan river, a tributary to river Yamuna, flows on the northern periphery of the campus. The temperature in summer is so intense and in winter drops down to freezing point due to heavy snow fall in the adjacent hilly regions. The campus receives an average annual rainfall of 1200-1300mm, of which 75% accounted during rainy season only (WII Meteorological station). The study area falls under tectonic groupbelongs to lower and upper tertiary rocks and sedimentary river deposits of the Shivalik system comprises sand stone, silt, clay and conglomerates (Wadia 1967). The soil is alluvial and highly fertile.

 



Methods

        An extensive literature survey includes several florulas, such as Anonymous (1948-1976), Balodi (1988), Lal and Dube (1984), Duthei (1903-29), Gaur et al. (1983), Gaur (1999), Goel and Bhattacharya (1981),  Gupta (1962, 1968, 1981), Hooker (1887-1897), Jain (1968, 1991), Kanjilal (1928), Maheshwari and Singh (1984), Nathani (1984), Nautiyal (1981), Osmaston (1926), Purohit and Dhar (1997), Purohit et al. (1985), Raizada and Saxena (1978), Rajwar (1983), Rawat and Pangtey (1987), Samant et al. (1998), Singh and Prakash (2002), Singh et al. (1980), Sharma et al. (1979) and Uniyal et al. (2002) was carried out for Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun on medicinal plants, their use, distribution along an altitudinal gradient, parts used and uses for different ailments. Bennet (1987) was used for name changes and Anonymous (1883-1970) for the nativity of the plants. 

 

Results

Status of medicinal plants

       The Wildlife Institute of India harbours 605 plants (94% wild and 6% palnted), of which 13% were trees, 12% shrubs, 48% herbs, 10% climbers, 15% grasses/sedges and 2% ferns. The WII campus herbaceous flora accounted 48% of the total wild herbaceous flora of Dehradun (Babu 1977). Of the total wild plants in WII campus, 62% (376 plants, Appendix I) are used for medicinal purposes, of which 16% were trees, 14% shrubs, 50% herbs, 11% climbers, 8% grasses/sedges and 2% ferns (Fig. 2). In each taxa most of the plants are used for medicinal purposes (79% trees, 71% shrubs, 64% herbs, 67% climbers, 32% grasses/sedges and 55% ferns of the total). The total families in the campus and medicinal plants’ families and genera across the taxa is shown in Fig. 2.

 

Distribution of family

        Most of the families (73) were represented by single species (Monospecific family). However, the families represented the maximum number of medicinal plants are in the following order: Fabaceae (37) > Asteraceae (27) > Poaceae (24) > Euphorbiaceae and Lamiaceae (15 in each), Malvaceae (10), Acanthaceae (9), Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Verbenaceae (8 in each) and Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (7 in each). Across different taxa Euphorbiaceae (7), Moraceae (6) and Caesalpiniaceae (4) were the dominant families in trees, Verbenaceae (8), Apocynaceae and Fabaceae (4 in each) in shrubs, Asteraceae (25), Fabaceae (21), Lamiaceae (13) and Convolvulaceae (10) in herbs, Fabaceae (9), Cucurbitaceae (5), Asclepiadaceae and Dioscoreaceae (4 in each) in climbers, Poaceae (24) in grass/sedge and Adiantaceae (2) in fern.

 

Nativity

         The nativity of plants for all the taxa showed that the plants from other regions of the world are higher followed by plants from Indian origin (Appendix I). The contribution of trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers from the Himalayan region was 6%, 12%, 3% and 12%, respectively.

 

Slide1

Fig. 2.  Total medicinal plant family, genera and species in different taxa.

 

Distribution along altitudinal gradient

         The distribution pattern of all the species in different taxa showed that all species found in sub-tropical region (up to 1500m). Thirteen species, of the total medicinal tree species had distribution up to warm temperate region, of which Pyrus pashia had the distribution up to cool temperate region. Of the total 52 medicinal shrubs, only 17 species had the distribution up to warm temperate region. Nine species of medicinal grasses and sedges and 2 species of ferns had the distribution up to warm temperate region. Among 187 medicinal herbs 2 species had the distrbition up to alpine region, 5 species up to sub-alpine region, 19 species up to cool temperatre region and 81 species up to warm temperate region. Rubia cordifolia is the only climber which had the distribution up to cool temperatre region, while 9 climbers had the distribution up to warm temperate region.

 

Plant part used

        The plant part used for various ailments is shown in Fig. 3. The bark of maximum number of trees (39 species) is used followed by fruits (31 species) and leaves (27 species) for various ailments. Leaves of maximum number of shrubs (35 species) are used followed by roots (28 species) and fruits (18 species) for various ailments. Ninty one species of herbaceous plants are entirely used followed by leaves (84 species), roots (58 species) and seeds (29 species). Roots of maximum climbers (19 species) are used followed by leaves (18 species). The grasses and sedges are used as whole plant and roots (each 13 species). The leaves and roots (each 2 species) and whole plant (3 species) of ferns are used. 

 

Slide3

 

Fig. 3.  Plant parts used for medicinal purposes across different taxa.

 

Use in ailments

       The maximum number of tree species used for diarrhoea/dysentary (23%) followed by stomachache (10%) and asthma (9%; Fig. 4). The maximum number of shrubs used for cough and cold (15%) followed by diarrhoea/dysentary (13%) and skin diseases (11%). Most of the herb species used for diarrhoea/dysentary (14%) followed by fever (12%) and wounds (11%). Among climbers, maximum number of species used for diarrhoea/dysentary (14%) followed by fever (12%) and awounds (11%), while grasses and sedges mainly used for fever (17%) followed by asthama (13%) and diarrhoea/dysentary (12%). The ferns used mainly in skin diseases (24%) followed by cough and cold (18%) and fever (12%, Fig. 4).

 

image008.jpg

Fig. 4.  Use of different taxa for various ailments.

 

Conservation efforts

         Ecological monitoring is one of the essential strategy required for the conservation of biodiversity component required for the conservation of biodiversity as it not only provides baseline data, but also enable to track the changes due to climatic factors over a period of time by considering the reasons responsible for that and the probable consequences. Several changes in different landform units or habitats have been observed in the campus since long (>15 years) due to change in local climate of the region. The seasonal effects and manipulation of water course have changed habitats drastically, such as the long-term directional changes i.e. succession and nutrient cycling. A total of 22 species (6 trees, 5 shrubs, 10 herbs and 1 climber) have been identified for future monitoring, which are important from conservation point of view (Table 2). By recognizing the status of various species growing in the campus, in-situ conservation will be helpful in similar lines as Task Force on MAPs recognizes Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) and the campus will act as gene pool.

 

Table 2: Important medicinal plants for monitoring in WII campus.

 

Species

Habit

Status

Achyranthes aspera                

Herb

Common

Adhatoda zeylanica              

Shrub

Rare

Asparagus adscendens  

Herb

Occassional

Azadirachta indica    

Tree

Rare

Bacopa monnieri  

Herb

Rare

Boerhavia diffusa    

Shrub

Rare

Calotropis procera     

Shrub

Rare

Centella asiatica

Herb

Common

Eclipta prostrata   

Herb

Common

Emblica officinalis    

Tree

Rare

Melia azedarach       

Tree

Rare

Mucuna nigricans       

Climber

Rare

Peristrophe paniculata  

Herb

Occassional

Phyllanthus urinaria  

Herb

Common

Plumbago zeylanica   

Herb

Rare

Rauwolfia serpentina     

Herb

Occassional

Ricinus communis    

Shrub

Rare

Solanum nigrum  

Shrub

Common

Syzygium cumini       

Tree

Common

Terminalia bellirica    

Tree

Rare

Terminalia chebula    

Tree

Occassional

Tridax procumbens     

Herb

Common

 

Acknowledgements

        Authors are thankful to the Director and Dean, FWS at Wildlife Institute of India for encouragement and providing necessary facilities.

 

 

 

References

 

Anonymous. 1883-1970. Index Kewensis Plantarum Phanerogamarum. Vol. I-II (1883-1885) and 15 suppl.  (1886-1970). Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Anonymous. 1948-1976. Wealth of India. Vol. I-XI.  CSIR, New Delhi.

Balodi, B.  1988. Introductory note on the ethnobotany of Gori Valley.  J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 12:453-455.

Bennet, S.S.R. 1987. Name Changes in Flowering plants of India and Adjacent Regions. Triseas Publishers, Dehradun, India.

Duthei, J.F. 1903-29. Flora of the upper Gangetic Plain and of the adjacent Siwaliks and sub-Himalayan tracts. Vols. I-III.  Govt. of India, Calcutta.

Gaur, R.D., Semwal, J.K. and Tiwari J.K. 1983.  A survey of high altitude medicinal plants of Garhwal Himalaya.  Bull. Medico-ethnobot. Res. 4:102-116.

Gaur, R.D. 1999. Flora of the District Garhwal, North West Himalaya (with ethnobotanical notes). TransMedia, Srinagar (Garhwal), U.P., India.

Ghimire, S., McKey, D. and Aumeeruddy-Thomas, Y. 2004. Heterogeneity in ethnoecological knowledge and management of medicinal plants in the Himalayas of Nepal: implications for conservation. Ecology and Society 9(3): 6.

Goel, A.K. and Bhattacharya, U.C. 1981. A note on some plants found effective in treatment of Jaundice (Hepatitis).  J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 2:157-159.

Gupta, R.K. 1962. Some unusual and interesting food plants of the Garhwal Himalaya.  J.D. Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 9(11-12): 532-535.

Gupta, R.K. 1968.  Flora Nainitalensis, Navayug Traders, New Delhi.

Gupta, R. 1981. Plants in folk medicine of the Himalayas. 83-90. In Jain S.K. (Ed.) Glimpses of Indian Ethnobotany. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi.

Hooker, J.D. 1887-1897. The flora of British India.  Vols. I-VII, Oxford.

Jain, S.K. 1968. Medicinal Plants.  National Book Trust, New Delhi.

Jain, S.K. 1991. Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany. A reference manual of man-plant relationships, ethnic groups and ethnobotanists in India. Deep Publications, New Delhi, India.

Kanjilal, U.N. 1928. Forest flora of the Chakrata, Dehradun and Saharanpur Forest Divisions, Uttar Pradesh. (Revised by Gupta BL, 3rd Ed.). Govt. of India Press, New Delhi.

Lal, B. and Dube V.P. 1984.  Ethnobotanical studies on Grewia optiva Drum ex Berret among the Jaunsaris and the people of the adjoining areas of Tehri Garhwal, Uttar Pradesh.  Himal. Res. Dev. 3: 6-8.

Maheshwari J.K. and Singh J.P. 1984. Contribution to the enthnobotany of Bhoxa tribe of Bijnor and Pauri Garhwal Districts, U.P. J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 5:251-259.

Maikhuri, R.K., Nautiyal, S. and Rao, K.S. 2001. Medicinal plant cultivation practices of bhotiyas in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve villages of Garhwal Himalaya. 317-328p. Occasional publication No. 14. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora.

Nathani, B.D. 1984. Flora of Chamoli Vol. I -II, Director, Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, Culcutta, India.

Nautiyal, S. 1981. Some medicinal plants of Garhwal hills - A traditional use. J. Sci. Res. Pl. Med. 2: 12-18.

Osmaston, A.E. 1926. A Forest Flora of Kumaon. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India.

Planning Commission. 2000. Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal Plants. Task Force Report, Planning Commission, New Delhi.

Posey, D.A. 1999. Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity - A Complementary Contribution to the Global Biodiversity Assessment, UNEP.

Purohit, A.N. and Dhar, U. 1997. Himalayan tree diversity - An update. Proc. Ind. natn.Sci. Acad. B 63(3): 187-209.

Purohit, V.P., Silas, R.A. and Gaur, R.D. 1985.  Ethnobotanical studies of some medicinal plants used in skin diseases from Raath (Pauri) Garhwal Himalaya. J. Sci. Res. Pl. Med. 6: 39-47.

Raizada, M.B. and Saxena, H.O. 1978. Flora of Mussoorie, Vol. I. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.

Rajwar, G.S. 1983. Low altitude medicinal plants of south Garhwal Bull. Medico-ethnobot. Res. 4:14-28.

Rawat, G.S. and Pangtey, Y.P.S. 1987.  A contiribution to the ethnobotany of Alpine regions of Kumaon.  J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 11:139-148.

Samant, S.S., Dhar, U. and Palni, L.M.S. 1998. Medicinal Plants of Indian Himalaya - Diversity distribution potential values. HIMAVIKAS Publication No. 13, Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital.

Schippmann, U., Leaman, D.J. and Cunningham, A.B. 2002. Impact of cultivation and gathering of medicinal plants on biodiversity: global trends and issues. In: Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Approach in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome.

Singh, K.K., Prakash, A. 2002. Flora of Rajaji National Park, Uttaranchal. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun.

Singh, K.K., Palvi, S.K. and Singh, H.B. 1980.  Survey of some medicinal plants of Dharchula block in Pithoragarh district of U.P. Bull. Medico-ethnobot. Res. 1: 8-24.

Sharma, P.K., Dhyani, S.K. and Shanker, V. 1979.  Some useful and medicinal plants of the district Dehradun and Siwalik.  J. Sci. Res. Pl. Med. 1: 17-43.

Uniyal, S.K., Awasthi, A. and Rawat, G.S. 2002. Current status and distribution of commercially exploited medicinal and aromatic plants in upper Gori valley, Kumaun Himalaya, Uttaranchal. Curr. Sci. 82(10): 1246-1252.

Wadia, D.N. 1967. Geology of India. Macmillan and Co., London.

 

 


Appendix I. Medicinal and aromatic plant species of Wildlife Institute of India campus, Dehradun, Uttarakhand.

 

Species

Local name

Family

Nativity

Altitudinal range (m)

Parts used

Uses

CLIMBERS

 

Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) Br.

Kali-dudhi

Apocynaceae

Zeylan

300-1500

Rt, Lv, Wp

Rheumatism, blood purifier, asthma, cough, bronchitis, bone fracture, cholera,constipation, dysentery, fever, nigh blindness, measles, ulcer, vomiting tonic, febrifuge, leucoderma

 

Vallaris solanacea (Roth.) Ktze.

Safed-bel

Apocynaceae

Ind or. Burma

300-1600

La, St

Sores, syphilis, abortificient, wounds

 

Calamus tenuis Roxb.

Bent

Arecaceae

Reg. Himal. Burma

250-800

Fr, Fl

Leucorrhoea, amenorrhoea

 

Cryptolepis buchananii Roem. andSchult.

Dudhi-bel, Meda-Singhi

Asclepiadaceae

Ind or.

300-1500

Rt, La, Wp

Fissure on sole, fever, rheumatism, dysentery, dropsy, cuts, cholera, abdominal pain, body ache, stomach ache, syphilis, stop bleeding

 

Marsdenia tenacissima Moon

Marua-bel, Jiti

Asclepiadaceae

Ind r. Malaya

300-1000

Rt

Stomach ache, urinary complaints, cough, fever, asthma

 

Telosma pallida Craib.

Surkilla

Asclepiadaceae

Ind. or.; China

400-1500

Lv, Wp

Cough

 

Tylophora hirsuta Wt.

Terni

Asclepiadaceae

Reg. Himal.

400-1400

Lv, Rt

Bronchitis, cold and cough, abortificient, hydrophobia

 

Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

Kaunya, Malkagni

Celastraceae

As Trop Malaya

400-1200

Sd

Mental disorders and ophthalmia, anaemia, abortifacient, backache, gout, headache, paralysis, stomachache, wounds, swollen veins, rheumatism, leprosy, diarrhoea, bone fracture, bronchitis, cold, cough, body ache, eczema, fever, digestive complaints

 

Rivea hypocrateriformis Choisy

Parhar, Safed Hulhul

Convolvulaceae

Geront Trop

300-1500

Lv,Rt, Wp

Head ache, rubefacient, vesicant, neuralgia, rheumatism, anthelmintic, gum troubles, sexual weakness, fits

 

Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.

Jangli-Karela

Cucurbitaceae

Ind Or.

500-1100

Rt

Fever, injuries, piles, asthma, bronchitis, head ache, postnatal, spleen problem, dysentery, diphtheria

 

Mukia maderaspatana Roem

Ban Kakhri, Gulya Kakri

Cucurbitaceae

As. et.; Afr. trop.

500-1000

Sd, Rt

Malarial fever, urinary disorders, vomiting, tooth ache, diarrhoea

 

Trichosanthes cucumerina L.

Jangli-chchinda

Cucurbitaceae

As. et.; Austr. trop.

500-1300

Rt, Fr

Malaria, fever, jaundice, prugative, stomach problem

 

Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour.

Indrian, Lal Indrayan

Cucurbitaceae

Cochinchin.

400-1500

Lv, Rt, Fr

Asthma, bronchitis, diabetes emetic, hoops and mouth disease of cattle, burns, diarrhoea, pheumonia

 

Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond

Bankundri

Cucurbitaceae

Am. bor; Ind. occ.

300-1500

Rt

Vineral diseases

 

Dioscorea belophylla Voigt.

Tairu, Turar, Tarur

Dioscoreaceae

Himal.

400-1500

Tu

Medicinal, edible

 

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Genthi, Ratalu

Dioscoreaceae

As Trop

300-2100

Tu

Dysentery, abdominal pain, jaundice, boils, piles

 

Dioscorea hispida Dennst.

Kuliapapad

Dioscoreaceae

Ind Or.

300-1000

Tu

Boils, rabbies

 

Dioscorea pentaphylla L.

Kou, Phal-alu, Kanta-alu

Dioscoreaceae

As Trop

300-1500

Tu

Rheumatism, asthma, bone fracture, cough, bile complaints, anasarca, dropsy, abdominal pain after delivery

 

Abrus pulchellus Wall. ex Thw.

Gaunchi

Fabaceae

Ind.or: Afr. austr.

400-1200

Sd

Stops conception

 

Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Benth.

Bandal

Fabaceae

Austr

300-1500

Lv, Wp

Dysentery, cholera, dropsy, gonorrhoea, night fever, wounds, syphilis, veneral diseases, female sterility, child birth, post natal treatment,swelling, anasarca, burns, spermatorrhoea, baldness, small-pox, sores, leg pain

 

Butea parviflora Roxb.

 

Fabaceae

Ind Or Burma

400-1000

St, Bk, Rt

Cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, madness, mucus in urine, reheumetic pain in ribns, stomach ache tooth ache, verner diseases

 

Milletia extensa (Benth.) Baker.

Gauju, Gonj

Fabaceae

Burma

300-1000

Wp

Spleen diseases, toothache, fever and sores

 

Mucuna nigricans  (Lour.) Steud.

Bhaisalu, Gaunchhi

Fabaceae

Cochinchin.

500-1200

Sd

Cholera, throat pain, fever

 

Puereria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth.

Sli-niangtythe

Fabaceae

Ind Or. Malaya China

800-1200

Lv

Tooth ache

 

Puereria tuberosa (Willd.) DC.

Siralu, Saral

Fabaceae

Reg. Himal.

400-1500

Tu

Asthma and abdoman pain, body ache, chest pain, cholera, swell and ulcer

 

Rhynchosia minima DC.

 

Fabaceae

Reg. Himal.

400-1200

Lv

Abortifacient

 

Vigna vexillata Benth.

Halunda

Fabaceae

Geront. trop.

300-800

Rt, Wp

Rheumatism, ulcer, cholera, weakness

 

Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz.

Aita-lagula, Madhavi

Malpighiaceae

Burma

300-1000

Lv

Skin diseases

 

Cissampelos parriera L.

Pahre, Parha

Menispermaceae

Reg Trop

600-2000

Lv, Rt

Antidote to snake and scorpion bite, constipation, gastric trouble, cough and urinary troubles, abdominal diseases, colic pain, diphtheria

 

Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels

Jaljamni, Chhirentha

Menispermaceae

Ind Or. Afr Trop

500-2000

Lv

Body swelling, wounds and joint pain

 

Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Me

Gilao, Giloei

Menispermaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

600-1600

St, Lv

Urinary troubles, general debility, malaria, emitic, leprosy, fever

 

Jasminum multiflorum (Burma.f.) Aners

Chameli

Oleaceae

As Trop

250-2500

Lv

Pimples and eczema

 

Passiflora edulis Sims.

Passion fruit

Passifloraceae

Brass

400-1500

Lv, Rt

Stomach ache, sores

 

Passiflora foetida L.

Gharibel, Gudsar

Passifloraceae

Brass

400-1000

Sd, Lv, Fr, Wp

Tonic, debility, headache, inflamation, wounds, itching, asthma, cold and cough

 

Clematis gouriana  Roxb.

Kanguli, Belkum, Santi

Ranunculaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

500-2000

Lv, St

Eye diseases, skin diseases, blisters

 

Gouania tiliaefolia Lam.

Rangchero, Kangorkur

Rhamnaceae

Ins. mascar

300-1000

Lv

Diarrhoea and spasmodic pain, dandruf

 

Ventilago denticulata Willd.

Kali-beli, Keonti, Raidhani

Rhamnaceae

Ind Or

300-800

Rt, Fl, Wp, Bk, St.

Fever, night blind, cool, earache, retention urine and faeces, headache, rheumatism, spermat, dysuria, eye diseases, abortificient, syphilis, ulcer, stomachache,

 

Rubia cordifolia L.

Kasoos

Rubiaceae

As Trop Temp Afr Trop

400-2700

Rt, St

Blood clotting agent, menorrhagia 

 

Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Kanphuti, Kakadni

Sapindaceae

Reg. Trop.

400-1500

Rt, Lv, Sd

Supressed mensturation, indigenous and fever

 

Smilax wightii DC.

Bhitura, Chhob-chini

Smilacaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

300-1500

Rt

Dysentery, amoebiasis, veneral diseases, leucorrhoea, urinary complaints, fever, spermatorrhoea, antifertility, anaemia, rheumatic-arthritis, veterinary amoebiasis, gastric complaints

 

Ampelocissus latifolia (Vahl) Planch.

Bhimna, Bhinura, Bhiranya

Vitaceae

Ind Or.

300-1700

Rt, Bk,  

Inflmatory, dysentery, fever, boil, bone fracture, pain in stomach, pneumonia, skin diseases, wounds, sores, snake bite

 

FERNS

 

Adiantum caudatum L.

Mayurshikha

Adiantaceae

Africa et Asia tropica. Ins. N. Hebridae.

400-1800

Wp

Skin diseases, asthma, fever, cough, bronchitis, burning sensation inside body

 

Adiantum incisum Forsk.

 

Adiantaceae

Mexico-Ecuador. Galapagos.

300-1800

Wp

Skin diseases, diabetes, cough

 

Dryopteris cochleata (Don.)Chr.

Hathajodi

Dryopteridaceae

 

300-2000

Rh, Fronds

Cholera

 

Equisetum ramosissimumDesf.

Dambro

Equisetaceae

 

300-1300

Wp

Swelling

 

Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw.

Kukri-bisi, Maha-Jal

Lygodiaceae

 

300-1200

Rt

Cough, abdomin pain, abortificient, cholera, antifertility, constipation rheumatism, eczema, jaundice, cuts, fever, stomachache

 

Cheilanthes farinosa (Forst.)Kaulf.

Sonapali

Sinopteridaceae

 

300-1200

Rt, Fronds

Eczema, menstrual disorder, stomach ache

 

GRASSES

 

Apluda mutica L.

Tachula, Ponai

Poaceae

As Trop Polynes Austr

300-2500

Wp

Veterinary mouth sores

 

Coix lacryma-jobi L.

Sankuru, Jargadi

Poaceae

As Trop

300-2100

Sd, Wp

Tonic, diarrhoea, fever, dysentery, thirst

 

Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.

Piriya-ghas, Rohis, Rohsa

Poaceae

Reg Trop

300-1400

Lv, oil

Skin disease, cold, rheumatism, biliousness

 

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Dubla, Doob

Poaceae

Cosmop.

250-1800

Rt, Lv, Wp

Fever, internal injury, dysentery, dropsy, cramps, piles, bleeding piles, urinary complaints, menstrual disorders, headache, refrifuge, antifertility, carbuncle, wounds, stomach ulcer, sores, stops bleeding, Bleeding from nose

 

Dactyloctenium aegypticum (L.) Beauv.

Makra-ghas

Poaceae

Cosmop Trop et Sub Trop

300-1000

Sd

Stomachache

 

Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf.

 

Poaceae

Madag

300-800

Wp

Dysentery

 

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

Jharnpriya-kodu, Mandla

Poaceae

Cosmop Trop et Sub Trop

300-1500

Wp

Fever

 

Hemarthria compressa (L.f.) Br.

Biksa

Poaceae

Reg Trop

400-1000

Wp

Dyspepsia

 

Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv.

Kumrya ghas, Kher

Poaceae

Reg Trop

300-1500

Sd, Wp, Rt, Awn

Piles, Scorpion sting, rabbies, dysentery, fever, muscular pain, toothache, atrophy, emaciation, asthma

 

Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.

Sauraun, Siru

Poaceae

Reg Calid

300-2000

Rt, Rh

Piles, fever, intestinal parasites, spleen and liver complaints, tonic, wounds, fermenting rice beer

 

Lolium temulentum L.

Mochni

Poaceae

Europe As Temp

400-2400

Wp

Veterinary convulsion, paralysis due to fungus infected fodder

 

Oryza sativa L.

Dhan, Saatti

Poaceae

Ind Or.

300-1200

Fl, Grain

Antifertility, local drink, edible

 

Paspalum scorbiculatum L.

Paplya, Kodra

Poaceae

Geront Trop

300-2200

Rt, Grain

Painful urination, eye diseases, Cold and cough, sores, carbuncle

 

Phragmites karka Trin. ex Steud.

Narkat

Poaceae

As.; Afr; Austr.

250-800

Lv

Paralysis

 

Saccharum spontaneum L.

Munj, Kansh

Poaceae

Geront Trop

300-1800

Lv, Wp

Burns, cholera, urinary complaints, cough, asthma

 

Setaria verticillata Beauv.

Latkaunya, Laptuna

Poaceae

Cosmop.

250-1200

Sd

Constipation, local drink

 

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

Chinna, Bharu

Poaceae

Reg Calid

300-1500

Sd, Wp, Lv

Stomach disorders, fever, antidote to snake poison, local drink

 

Sporobolus diander Beauv

Sitya

Poaceae

As. et  Austr. trop

300-1500

Lv

Burns and pimples

 

Themeda arundinacea Ridley

Kulpura, Kapur-khas

Poaceae

Penins.; Malaya

300-900

Rt

Fever

 

Themeda gigantea Hack.

 

Poaceae

Ins Philip

300-1400

Wp

Spleen complaints, stomachache, sores, impotance, gonorrhoea, cholera, bronchitis, oedema, asthma, anasarca, spermatorrhoea

 

Thysanolaena maxima Ktze.

Naktura, Nastura

Poaceae

As Trop

400-2000

Fl, Rt, Sd

Abortifacient, eye complaints, asthma, bronchitis, antifertility, child birth, pulmonary tuberculosis

 

Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash

Khas, Veeran-mool

Poaceae

As Trop

300-1600

Rt, Wp

Anthelmintic, fever, epilepsy, boils, burns, mouth sores, toothache, malaria, scorpion sting, snakebite

 

Dendrocalamus strictus Nees

 

Poaceae

Cosmop Trop et Sub Trop

300-1500

Rt, Lv, Rh, Sd

Infertility, cough, fever, injuries, tonic

 

SEDGES

 

Cyperus iria L.

Agarmotha

Cyperaceae

Geront Trop

250-1500

Rt

Rheumatism

 

Cyperus kyllingia Endl.

 

Cyperaceae

Amphig Trop

400-1200

Rt

Tumor

 

Cyperus pangorei Rottb.

 

Cyperaceae

Geront Trop

600-1200

Rt

Atrophy, antidote to snake poison

 

Cyperus rotundus L.

Motha

Cyperaceae

Geront Trop

300-1500

Wp, Rt, Bb.

Astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, jaundice, wounds, sores, urinary complaints, stomach disorders, dysentery, bowel complaints, masticatory, heat stroke, snake bite

 

Cyperus triceps Endl.

 

Cyperaceae

Geront. trop.

300-1000

Rt

Liver complaints

 

HERBS

 

Barleria cristata L.

Saundi, Kala-bansa

Acanthaceae

Ind Or. Burma

250-1500

Wp, Rt, Lv

Bronchitis, swelling on legs, toothache, bodyache, anaemia, pneumonia, wounds, antidote to snake poison

 

Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees

Kulartore, Kuthhi

Acanthaceae

Ind Or.

500-2000

Lv, Wp

Cough, gastroenteritis, checks bleeding from wounds

 

Hygrophila auriculata (Schum.) Heine

Talimkhana

Acanthaceae

Ind Or.

250-600

Rt. Lv

Aphrodisiac, cancer, dropsy, bodypain, jaundice, malaria, tonic, tuberculosis, fistula, impotance, urenogenital complaints, liver complaints

 

Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.)T.Anders

Minjonja

Acanthaceae

Ind Or.; Malaya

300-1000

Wp

Headache

 

Lepidagathis incurva Don

 

Acanthaceae

As Trop

400-1200

Fr

Ear complaints

 

Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spr.

Daledirdu, Panj-ki jadi

Acanthaceae

Amphig Trop

300-900

Rt, Fr, Lv

Wounds, diarrhoea, syphilis, gastric problems, blister, boils on tongue

 

Perilepta auriculata Bremek.

Pandai

Acanthaceae

Ind Or.; Burma

400-800

Lv

Febrifuge

 

Peristrophe paniculata Burm

Kaknadi, Chirchiri

Acanthaceae

Ind Or.

250-1400

Wp, Rt, Fr, Lv

Wounds, gout, rheumatism, eye diseases, bone fracture, sprain

 

Rungia pectinata (L.) Nees

Dabari, Hasa-arak

Acanthaceae

Ind Or. Burma

250-1200

Wp

Small pox

 

Agave americana L.

Ram-bans

Agavaceae

As Trop

300-1800

Lv

Paultice, fish poison

 

Trianthema portulacastrum L.

Santhi, Swet-punarnava

Aizoaceae

Am. trop.

600-1000

Rt

Asthma, amenorrhoea, liver troubles, jaundice

 

Achyranthes aspera L.

Latjiri, Lich-kuri

Amaranthaceae

Geront. trop.

500-2200

Wp

Malarial fever, dropsy, child birth, bleeding, cold, colic, cough, dysentery, headache, ear complaints, hydrophobia, boils, insect bite

 

Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Bl.

Sufedphulia

Amaranthaceae

Java

500-1500

Wp

Diuretic and demulcent

 

Alternanthera ficoides (L.)R.Br. ex Roem.andSchultz.

 

Amaranthaceae

Geront. trop

200-1000

Wp

Urinary complaints, abortifacient 

 

 

Alternanthera pungens H.B.K.

Bharatiya kanti

Amaranthaceae

Bras.

250-1500

Lv

Tonic

 

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.br ex DC.

Gaitewar

Amaranthaceae

Reg. trop

200-1500

Lv

Puerperal fever, malarial fever, night blindness, post natal treatment, rheumatism, bone fracture, eye complaints, diarrhoea, dysentery, bee reppellent

 

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Kantelu-marsu

Amaranthaceae

Reg Trop

500-1200

Wp

Dismenorrhoea, antiemitic, blood purifier, cough, cold, eczema, Gonorrhoea

 

Amaranthus viridis L.

Jangli-chaulai

Amaranthaceae

Reg Trop

500-1200

Wp

Vermifuge, centipede bite, Scorpion bite

 

Celosia argentia L.

Gadrya

Amaranthaceae

Cosmop Trop

500-1000

Sd, Lv

Blood purifier, bleeding dysentery, Diarrhoea, Sore in mouth, Purgative

 

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban

Brahmi-buti

Apiaceae

Reg Trop et Sub Trop

300-2500

Wp

Blood purifier, tonic, diuretic, leprosy, syphilis, wounds, mental disorders, cooling, brain nourisher, improves memory

 

Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott

Bag-Mungri

Araceae

Reg. Himal.

500-1500

Tu

Veterinary diseases, edible

 

Sauromatum venosum (Ait.) Kunth

Bhasm-kant

Araceae

Ind Bor Occ

500-2500

Tu

Skin disease, sores, tumors, poultice

 

Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott.

Gaj-peepal, Hathkaul

Araceae

Aethiopia

250-800

Fr, Wp. Rt

Cancer, cholera, bone fracture, scabies, pneumonia, stomachache, syphilis, tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, stimulant, aphrodisiac

 

Asclepias curassavica L.

Lamla, Kakatundi

Asclepiadaceae

Amer Austr

300-2000

La, Rt

Gonorrhoea, ulcer, wounds, anthelmintic, abdominal pain, piles, flowers used in psychomedicine

 

Acanthospermum hispidum DC.

Gokhru, Gondhichedi

Asteraceae

Bras.

300-1500

Wp

Skin diseases and fever

 

Ageratum conyzoides L.

Gundrya, Gandhela

Asteraceae

Reg Trop

300-1500

Fl, Sd

Skin ailments, cuts, sores, kindney stone, cancer, boils, diarrhoea, head ache, colic, leprosy, muscular pain, scabies, sores, swell body, uterine disorders, snake bite

 

Ageratum houstonianum Mill.

Neelum

Asteraceae

Mexic

300-1200

Wp

Tonic, diarrhoea

 

Bidens pilosa L.

Kumur, Kumra

Asteraceae

Ind. occ. Am.; Austr.

300-1500

Wp

Cough, bronchitis, leucoderma

 

Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC.

Kakranda

Asteraceae

Ind Or. Malaya Ins Mascar

400-1000

Lv, Wp

Vermifuge, piles, cuts and wounds, burns, urinary complaints, bronchitis and fever

 

Caesulia axillaris Roxb.

Bhelwandi

Asteraceae

Ind Or.

300-600

Lv, Wp

Goitre, baldness, stomach complaints

 

Centipeda minima (L.) Br. and Asch.

Nakh-Chhikni

Asteraceae

As et Austr Trop Ins Pacif

300-800

Lv, Wp

Headache, promote sneezing, epilepsy, hydrocele, influenza

 

Cirsium wallichii DC.

Kandeiya, Kandra

Asteraceae

Reg. Himal.

300-3000

Lv, Rt

Hepatic and spleen trouble, skin diseases, scorpion stings, chest pain, dysentery, thirst

 

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

Bhangri, Bhangru, Bringraj

Asteraceae

Cosmop Trop

200-1500

Wp

Liver complaints, asthma, fever, constipation, bronchitis, throat pain, conjuctivitis, antiseptic, jaundice, itching, gastric complaints, promote hair growth, scorpion sting, malaria, toothache, wounds, swelling, used in the preparation of bringraj thel

 

Elephantopus scaber L.

Adhomukha

Asteraceae

Cosmop Trop

300-1500

Wp

Intermitant fever, headache, heart diseases, liver complaints, pimples, rheumatism, swelling, dysentery, cough, dropsy, facilitate child birth, syphilis, vomiting, urinary

 

Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC.

Hirankuri, Dudhi

Asteraceae

Afr Trop

250-2000

Wp

Febrifuge, Diarrhoea, night blindness, cattaract, bruises, cooling, inflamatory, wounds, eye diseases, boils, earache

 

Enhydra fluctuans Lour.

Hingcha

Asteraceae

Cochinchin.

300-1800

Wp

Dropsy, bllod pressure, snake bite, anasarca

 

Eupatorium adenophorum Sprengl.

Kharna, Bakura

Asteraceae

Jamaic.; Mexic.

250-2000

Lv

Antiseptic, wounds, stomachache, toothache, cuts, haemostat

 

Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Marchya

Asteraceae

Amer Austr

600-2000

Lv

Antidote to nettle sting, stop bleeding, snake bite

 

Gnaphalium polycaulon Per.

Pondpadro

Asteraceae

Geront Trop

300-800

Wp

Gastric complaints

 

Parthenium hysterophorus L.

Gajar ghas, Jhilmi

Asteraceae

Amer Bor et Austr

250-1500

Rt, Fl

Nasal block in cold

 

Saussurea heteromalla (D.Don) Hand.-Maz.

Murang

Asteraceae

Reg. Himal.

500-2000

Lv, Rt

Leucoderma, carminative, fever, colic

 

Senecio nudicaulis Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

Neelkanthi, Ratpati

Asteraceae

Reg. Himal.

400-900

Rt, Lv

Fever, colic, skin diseases

 

Siegesbeckia orientalis L.

Liskura, Gobariya

Asteraceae

Cosmop Trop

250-2000

Wp

Diarrhoea, bowl complaints, boils, ulcer, wounds, sores, skin diseases, heart diseases

 

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill.

Pili-dudhi

Asteraceae

Cosmop. 

300-3000

Wp, Lv

Cuts, blood purifier, wounds, tonic

 

Tridax procumbens L.

Kumra, Kanphuli

Asteraceae

Amer Trop

250-1500

Wp, Lv

Antiseptic, cuts and wounds, toothache, stomach pain, ulcer, sores, stone in urinary bladder, leprosy, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, haemostat, eczema, blisters and boils, eye diseases, scorpion bite

 

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

Kalgira, Kaljiri

Asteraceae

Amphig Trop

300-1500

Lv, Wp, Rt

Dysentery, impotance, lactation, cholera, constipation, leucorrhoea, malaria, piles, night blindness, skin diseases, wounds, spleen complaints, insect bite

 

Xanthium strumarium L.

Gokhuriya, Bhangra, Kurou

Asteraceae

Cosmop. 

250-1800

Fr, Sd, Lv, Rt

Refrifuge, malaria, headache, eye diseases, cancer wounds, piles, rheumatism, scrofula, ringworm, Urinary complaitns, ulcer, toothache, 

 

Youngia japonica (L.) DC.

Rumdum, Rupjup

Asteraceae

As Trop Austr

300-1000

Rt, Wp

Urinary complaints, galactagogue

 

Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forsk.

Lichkura, Andhahuli

Boraginaceae

Arabia

300-3200

Wp. Rt

Muscular pain, cold and cough, aphrodisiac

 

Cynoglossum zeylanicum Thumb. Ex Lehm.

Andhahuli

Boraginaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

400-3000

Lv, Rt

Asthma, bronchitis, vomiting, cough and diarrhoea

 

Trichodesma indicum (L.) Br.

Aundhi, Chhota-Kulpha

Boraginaceae

Ind Or. Afghan Persia

250-1500

Rt, Fr, Lv

Stomachache, vermifuge, wounds, sores, boils, eczema, pyrrohea swellings on joints, brain tonic

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Tuntkya, Botlya

Brassicaceae

Reg Temp 

400-4500

Lv, Rt, Wp

Gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, dropsy, blood pressure, cuts and wounds, urinary troubles

 

Cardamine scutata Thunb.

 

Brassicaceae

Japan

450-4000

Wp

Epilepsy, cold and cough

 

Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm.

Jangli-alai

Brassicaceae

Cosmop. 

400-2000

Sd

Headache

 

Cassia absus L.

Chaaksee, Cheaksu, Banar

Caesalpiniaceae

Cosmop Trop

400-1000

Lv, Sd

Ophthalmic, skin diseases, wounds, eye infection, diarrhoea, cough

 

Cassia occidentalis L.

Taror, Chakunda, Kasonda

Caesalpiniaceae

Cosmop Trop

400-1400

Lv, Sd, Fl

Eczema, gastric trouble, lactation, ringworm, skin diseases, dysentery, bone fracture, rheum and snake bite

 

Cassia pumila Lam.

 

Caesalpiniaceae

Cosmop. trop.

400-1800

wp

Galact, piles

 

Cassia tora L.

Chakunda, Panvar, Chakramarde

Caesalpiniaceae

Cosmop Trop

400-1300

Lv, Rt, Sd, St.

Night blindness, eczema, antseptic, cuts, cold, stomach ache, wounds, scabies, rhemetic, jaundice, skin diseases, bone fracture

 

Cannabis sativa L.

Bhang

Cannabinacaeae

As Centr

600-2800

Lv,Sd

Intoxication, narcotic, bronchitis, convulsion, cramps, epilepsy, dyspepsia, ear complaint, gonorrhoea, paralysis of tongue, skin disease, laxative, nervine stimulant

 

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. Ex R. and S.

Pithpapra

Caryophyllaceae

Cosmop Trop

500-2000

Wp

Burns, boils, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, pneumonia, skin diseases, mouth sores, tongue sores, hay fever, food poison, insect bite, asthma

 

Stellaria media (L.)Vill.

 

Caryophyllaceae

Reg Bor Temp

300-2700

Wp

Bone fracture

 

Chenopodium album L.

Bathua, Bathu

Chenopodiaceae

Reg Temp et Trop

500-3000

Lv, Sd

Skin disease, urinary complaints

 

Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

 

Chenopodiaceae

Reg Temp et Trop

500-1200

Lv, Sd

Typhoid, anthelum, pneumonia, vermifuge, piles

 

Chenopodium murale L.

 

Chenopodiaceae

Reg Bor et Austr

500-1200

Lv

Asthma

 

Cleome viscosa L.

Jakhya, Hulhul

Cleomaceae

Geront Trop

400-1800

Sd

Rheumatic, arthritis, otorrhoea and wounds

 

Commelina benghalensis L.

Kankaua, Kansura

Commelinaceae

Geront Trop

300-2000

Lv, Rt

Liver complaints, wounds, scorpion bite, sores, fever, laxative, diarrhoea, irritation by catterpillar

 

Commelina diffusa Burm.f.

Kanshura

Commelinaceae

Reg. trop.

250-600

Rt

Antidote to snake bite

 

Commelina suffruticosa Bl.

 

Commelinaceae

Java

300-1500

Wp

Menorrhoea

 

Murdania nudiflora (l.) Brenan.

Kansura

Commelinaceae

Ind Or.

300-2000

Wp, Rt

Leprosy, stomach complaints, giddiness, astringent

 

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Heyranpatu, Rajbala

Convolvulaceae

Geront Trop

250-1500

Rt, Wp

Pergative, burns and bruises, detergent

 

Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

Sankhpuspi

Convolvulaceae

Amphig Trop

300-1500

Wp, Lv

Fever, cough and cold, stomach ache, ulcer, dysentery, asthma, bronchitis and brain tonic

 

Evolvulus nummularius L.

Cgubuoata, Sukrisure

Convolvulaceae

Amphig. trop.

250-1500

Wp

Wounds, cuts, burns, scorpion sting, hysteria

 

Ipomoea batatas Poir.

Shakarkand

Convolvulaceae

Reg. trop.

300-1000

Tu

Rich iron

 

Ipomoea cairica Sweet.

Neeli-bel

Convolvulaceae

Amohig. trop.; Aegypt

300-1500

Fr, Sd

Pugative, cough and cold

 

Ipomoea eriocarpa Br.

Kumpan-bel

Convolvulaceae

Geront Trop

300-1500

Lv

Rheumatsm, ulcer, leprosy, cuts wounds headache

 

Ipomoea muricata Jacq.

Michai

Convolvulaceae

Reg. Himal.; Japan

300-1400

Sd

Fever and constipation

 

Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth.

Kaludanu, Neelkalmi

Convolvulaceae

Amphig Trop

250-2000

Wp, Sd

Purgative, tonic, fever and constipation

 

Ipomoea pes-tigridis L.

Ghiabati

Convolvulaceae

Geront Trop

250-1500

Rt,Lv,

Headache, fever, eye diseases, antidote to snake bite, laxative

 

Ipomoea quamoclit L.

Kamalata

Convolvulaceae

Amphig Trop

250-1200

Lv, Wp

Bleeding piles , ulcer and pain in breast

 

Cucumis hardwickii Royle

Elaroo

Cucurbitaceae

Ind Or.

500-1400

Rt, Fr, Sd

Fever, pneumonia, suppressed urination

 

Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.

Ghangra, Ghia

Cucurbitaceae

Geront Trop

300-1800

Fr

Diarrhoea, prickly heat, vet dyspepsia

 

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Akash-laguli, Amar-bel

Cuscutaceae

Ind Or.

250-2500

Wp, St

Skin diseases, eye diseases, bodyache, cuts and wounds, diphtheria, headache, itching, oedema, anthelmintic, carminative, cough, fever, indigestion, liver complaints and jaundice, nervine weakness

 

Euphorbia hirta L.

Dudhi

Euphorbiaceae

Amphig Trop 

300-2000

Wp

Warts, lactification, bronchial infection and asthma

 

Euphorbia hypericifolia L.

Hazardana

Euphorbiaceae

Amphig Trop

400-1400

Lv

Dysentery, diarrhoea and menorrhagia

 

Phyllanthus fraternus Webstr.

Bhui-amla

Euphorbiaceae

As. Trop.

300-1000

Wp

Boils, allergy, abortifacient, diarrhoea, dysentery, dropsy, genito urinary diseases, gonnorhoea, indigestion, gastric problems, jaundice, ulcer, swelling, sores

 

Phyllanthus urinaria L.      

Hazarmani

Euphorbiaceae

Amphig. trop

250-800

Wp

Dropsy, gonorrhoea, sleepnesness, urinogenetic disorder, kidney stone, gallbladder stone, hepatitis, liver complaints

 

Phyllanthus virgatus Forst.f.

Bhiuavate

Euphorbiaceae

As Trop

300-1800

Lv, Rt, Fr

Stomache ache, gonorrhoea, cold, fever, itching, dysentery, piles

 

Alysicarpus bupleurifolius (L.) DC.

 

Fabaceae

Ind Or.

400-1200

Wp

Fever

 

Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.)DC.

Davai, Sangue

Fabaceae

Ind Or.

250-1500

Rt, Wp

Antifertility, bone fracture, pain in joints, expectorant

 

Crotalaria albida Heyne ex Roth.

Chunchuni, Ban-Methi

Fabaceae

As Trop

400-1800

Sd, Rt

Constipation and blood purifier

 

Crotalaria bialata Schr.

 

Fabaceae

As. trop.

400-2000

Wp

Tonic, preganant women, urinary problem, facilitate child birth, snake bite etc

 

Crotalaria calycina Schr.

 

Fabaceae

Afr Trop

400-1200

Wp

Syphilis, cholera, dysentery, vener sores, haematuria and pain

 

Crotalaria prostrata Rootler ex Willd

Chunchhuni

Fabaceae

As. trop

450-2000

Wp

Diarrhoea, antiemet and facilitate the child birth

 

Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.

Salpalnu

Fabaceae

As Trop Austr

400-1000

Rt

Astrigent, tonic, bronchitis, asthma, dysentery, eye infection, vomitting and fever

 

Desmodium heterocarpon (L.)DC.

Sarivan

Fabaceae

As Trop Austr

500-1200

Rt, Wp

Fever, cough, tonic

 

Desmodium laxiflorum DC.

Kadakratru

Fabaceae

As. trop.

400-2200

Rt

Vomiting, small pox and unconcious

 

Desmodium microphyllum (Thunb.) DC.

Sunsuni, Chattomara

Fabaceae

As Trop Austr

300-2300

Rt

Abortion

 

Desmodium motorium (Houtt.) Merr.

Bhunakra, Ote-atil

Fabaceae

As Trop

400-1000

Rt, Lv, Fr

Rheumetic, wounds

 

Desmodium pulchellum Backer

Jeetedari

Fabaceae

As Trop Austr

600-1300

Rt, Fl, St

Burning sensation in stomach, head ache, cavities in tooth, repels bed bug

 

Desmodium triangulare (Retz.) Merr.

Kalabija

Fabaceae

As Trop

450-1400

Rt

Stomachache, diarrhoea and eye cataract

 

Desmodium triflorum DC.

Kudaliya

Fabaceae

Cosmop Trop

500-2300

Wp

Breast pain, colic, body pain, sores, spleen dysentery, toothache and nail diseases

 

Desmodium triquetrum (L.) DC.

Salparni

Fabaceae

As Trop

500-1500

Wp

Dysentery, toothache, snake bite

 

Indigofera cassioides Rottb. ex DC.

Sakena

Fabaceae

Reg. Himal.

450-2000

Lv

Epilepsy, cough, swell face in labour, urine

 

Lens culinaris Med.

Masur

Fabaceae

Oriens

450-2000

Sd

Small pox

 

Macrotyloma uniflorum  (Lamk.)Verd.

Thanthura, Kulthi

Fabaceae

Geront. trop.

400-1800

Sd, Lv, Wp

Kidney stone, postnatal treatment, menstrual complaints, tooth ache, dysentery, burns, leprosy, pneumonia, pleuricy, dysuria, leucorrhoea, renal calculi, bladder stone, blood purifier

 

Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.

Dhaincha

Fabaceae

Cosmop Trop

300-600

Fl, Lv

Antifertility, chronic eruptions, ulcers, colic, pain, pleurisy, pneumonia and urin trouble

 

Uraria picta (Jacq.) Desv.

Dabra

Fabaceae

Geront Trop

800-1200

Rt

Gonorrhoeal

 

Zornia gibbosa Span

Dwipat

Fabaceae

Reg Bor Temp

500-2200

Rt

Colic pain, sedative and indigestion

 

Fumaria indica Pugsley

Pit-papra, Khairua

Fumariaceae

Geront Trop

500-1400

Wp

Diuretic, Diaphoretic, aperient, wounds, suppressed urination

 

Canscora decussata (Roxb.) Roem.

Sankhawali

Gentianaceae

Ind Or. Afr. trop.

400-2300

Wp

Nerve tonic, blood purifier, stomachache

 

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

Kali-Musli, Musali

Hypoxidaceae

As Trop

300-1800

Rh

Jaundice, piles, fever, ear complaints, epilepsy, itching, veneral diseases, leucorrhoea, impotance, cuts, cough, asthma, blindness, eye diseases, bleeding nose, skin disease, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, unconsiousness in children, tonic, galactagogue, aphrodisiac, veterinary eye diseases

 

Hypoxis aurea Lour

Golkya

Hypoxidaceae

Cochinchin.

300-2000

Rh

Aphrodisiac, injuries, swelling

 

Acrocephalus hispidus (L.) Nicols.

Utkund

Lamiaceae

Ind Or.; China

400-2000

Wp, Rt, Lv

Cold, sore throat, expectorant

 

Ajuga bracteosa Wall. Ex Benth.

Neelkanthi, Kadwipatti

Lamiaceae

Afr Trop Ind Or. As

500-2100

Lv, Wp

Blood purifier, burns, fever, purgative, malarial fever, astringent, febrifuge, tonic, anthelmintic, cuts

 

Anisomeles indica (L.) Ktze.

Goplya, Gobara, Kalabangra

Lamiaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

250-2000

Wp, Lv

Gastric troubles, blood purifier, muscular pain, nervous complaints, fever, wounds, swelling on the neck, astringent, carminative, antipyretic, chek nocurnal emission

 

Clinopodium umbrosum Koch.

Birchee

Lamiaceae

Ind Or. ; Oriens

250-2000

Wp

Blood purifier, gastric troubles, astringent, carminative

 

Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb.) Hyland.

Chhali

Lamiaceae

Europe

400-2000

Fl

Skin disease

 

Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spr.

Gumba, Bishkapru

Lamiaceae

Ind Or.

250-1500

Wp, Lv, Fl

Skin diseases, scabies, fever, cough, cold, malaria, headache, eye diseases, diarrhoea, constipation, tooth and gum troubles, wounds, diphoretic, anthelmintic, anticeptic, antidote to snake poison

 

Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.

Geeta-kushir

Lamiaceae

Ind Or.; China

400-1000

Wp

Bone dislocation

 

Nepeta hindostana  Haines

Billilotan

Lamiaceae

Europe; Oriens

400-800

Wp

Fever, gonorrhoea, cardiac tonic

 

Ocimum basilicum L.

Marua, Murya

Lamiaceae

As Occ et Trop

300-1500

Lv, Wp, Sd,

Cold, cough and fever, stomach complaints, headache, earache, dropsy, convulsion, epilepsy, cholera, insecticide, wounds, to remove alcoholic intoxication

 

Ocimum sanctum L.

Tulsi, Shyma-tulsi

Lamiaceae

Geront Trop

250-1000

Lv, Wp

Antiseptic, cold, cough and fever, urinary troubles, vomiting, bronchitis, chicken-pox, cholera, constipation, headache, diarrhoea, dropsy, ear complaints, malaria, colitis, gastric complaints, live complaints, wounds,insect repellent, antidote to poison, leprosy

 

Orthosiphon rubicundus Benth.

Ban-kikri

Lamiaceae

Ind Or.; Burma

250-3000

Rt

Wounds, rheumatism

 

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.

Bhangjeera, Bhangiri

Lamiaceae

Ind Or.

250-3000

Wp, Lv

Rheumatic arthritis, bronchitis, cough, uterine complaints, flavouring

 

Salvia plebeia Br.

Sathi, Samundarsok

Lamiaceae

As Or Austr

600-1200

Sd

Menorrhoea and gonorrhoea

 

Leea asiatica (L.) Rid.

Kumali, Nagashya

Leeaceae

Ind Or. Burma

250-1800

Rt, Fr, Lv

Night-fever, cuts, wounds, rheumatism, urine troubles

 

Gloriosa superba L.

Kalihari, Lakya

Liliaceae

As Trop

400-2200

Rt, Lv, Rh

Intermittant fever, cholera, infertility, gonorrhoea, skin diseases, stomachache, sores, syphilis, leprosy, spleen complaints, piles, scabies, scorpion bite, insect bite, asthma, facilitate child birth, abortifacient, anthelmintic, tumors, suppressed urination, veterinary smaall-pox

 

Linum usitatissimum L.

Alsi, Atasi

Linaceae

Europe Oriens

300-800

Sd

Wounds and cough

 

Reinwardtia indica Dumort.

Phiunli

Linaceae

Ind Or.

300-2400

Fl, Lv

Petals chewed as tongue wash

 

Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Med. ssp.tetraphyllusvar. pungens (Roxb.) Hochr.

Jangli  Bhindi

Malvaceae

Ind Or.

400-1500

Rt

Pneumonia

 

Abelmoschus moschatus (L.)Medik.

Kapur-kanda

Malvaceae

Geront. trop.

300-800

Sd

Veterinary medicine, perfume

 

Malva parviflora L.

Soncheli

Malvaceae

Europe

400-2000

Sd, Lv,

Gonorrhoea, throat irritation, cuts and wounds

 

Malvastrum coromandelianum Garcke

Suchi

Malvaceae

Cosmop Trop

400-1200

Lv, Rt

Dysentery, wounds, jaundice, rheumatism, sprain, sores, aphrodisiac

 

Sida acuta Burm.f.

Bala

Malvaceae

Amer Centr.

250-2700

Lv, Fr, Rt,

Gastric diseases, vermifuge, stomachabe, gonorrhoea, burns, abortifacient, antiemitic, anthelmintic, tonic

 

Sida cordata L.

Bhiyli, Kharenti

Malvaceae

Reg Trop

400-1800

Lv, Rt, Wp

Gonorrhoea, spermatorrhoea, asthma, impotance, leucorrhoea, piles, urinary complaints, cuts and wounds, dysentery, tonic

 

Sida cordifolia L.

Balu, Barialas

Malvaceae

Reg Trop

250-1200

Sd, Rt, Wp

Rheumatism, dysentery, gonorrhoea, boils, sexual weekness, dyspepsia, stomachache, veneral disease, wounds, spermatorrhoea, leucorrhoea, diuretic, astringent, tonic

 

Sida rhombifolia L. ssp rhombifolia

Bhiunli

Malvaceae

Amphig Trop

400-1200

Lv, Rt, St,

Boils, joint pain, asthma, fever, cuts, bruises, dysentery, rheumatism, tuberculosis, heart ailments, gum infections, tonic

 

Martynia annua L.

Bichhwa, Bichu

Martyniaceae

Brass Mexic

250-2000

Lv, Wp, Fr

Epilepsy, sores, tonsilitis, wounds, scabies, eczema, hair fall, carbuncle, inflamation, itching

 

Mimosa pudica L.

Chu-mui

Mimosaceae

Brass

400-1200

Wp

Dysentery, sores, boils, diruretic, epilepsy, fever, head ache, hydrocycle, kidney disease, leucorrhoea

 

Boerhavia diffusa L.

Pundera, punarnava

Nyctaginaceae

Cosmop Trop

500-2000

Rt, Lv

Tonic, eye complaints, asthma, bronchitis and liver trouble, jaundice

 

Ludwigia octovalvis Raven.

Bhuikura, Datiju

Onagraceae

Amphig trop.

300-600

Wp

Eczema, skin diseases, fever and wounds of toe

 

Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Bl.

Kopouphul

Orchidaceae

Ind Or. Malaya 

300-1500

Wp

Inflamation of wounds, centipede bite

 

Aeginetia indica L.

Kandar

Orobanchaceae

As. trop.

400-1200

Sd

Burns 

 

Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC.

Chuimui, Lajwanti, Murphula

Oxalidaceae

Cosmop Trop

300-800

Lv, Wp

Burn, decreases sexual vigour, gidding, headache, diarrhoea, malaria, muscular and rheum pain and tonic, insect bite

 

Oxalis corniculata L.

Khati-Buti, Chukra

Oxalidaceae

Amphig Temp et Trop

300-1800

Lv, Wp

Conjuctivitis, insect bites, appetite, diarrhoea, dysentery, epilepsy, piles, fever, jaundice, skin diseases, stomachache, 

 

Oxalis debilis H.B.K.var. corymbosa (DC.)Lour.

Bhilmori, Chukra

Oxalidaceae

N.Granat.

250-700

Wp, Lv

Antidote to toxicity

 

Argemone mexicana L.

Pili Kateli

Papaveraceae

Mexic Amer Bor

500-1200

Sd, Rt, Sap

Seeds emetic narcotic, Roots vermicide, chewed in leucorrhoea, sap rheumatic pain

 

Peperomia pellucida (L.)Kunth.

Luchipata

Piperaceae

Am. et Afr. trop.

250-1500

Wp

Stomachache, headache, fever

 

Plantago major  L.

Kaneli

Plantaginaceae

Europe As et Amer Bor

600-3200

Lv

Gastric troubles, intestinal injury

 

Plumbago zeylanica L.

Chitrak

Plumbaginaceae

Geront Trop

500-2500

Rt

Skin diseases, wounds, causes abortion, eczema, diarrhoea, antifertility, dyspepsia, headache, leprosy, muscular pain, malaria, fever, appetite, spleen complaints, wounds

 

Polygala arvensis Willd.

Nilkanta

Polygalaceae

China Ind Or.

400-800

Rt, Lv, Wp

Cough, asthma, nervous disorders, rheumatism, joint swellings, bronchitis

 

Polygonum barbatum L.

 

Polygonaceae

Geront Trop

300-1500

Wp

Snake bite, fish poison

 

Polygonum chinense L.

 

Polygonaceae

As Or Malaya

300-2700

Wp

Tonic, antiscorbutic

 

Polygonum hydropiper  L.

Jiyanti

Polygonaceae

Reg. Temp Bor et Aust.

250-1500

Wp

Skin disease, ring worm, fish poison

 

Polygonum plebejum Br

 

Polygonaceae

Geront Trop et Temp

500-1300

Rt

Baldness

 

Rumex nepalensis Spr.

Khatura, Amlya

Polygonaceae

As Occ Ind Or. Malaya Afr Austr

500-3000

Lv

Dysmenorrhoea, stomach ache, colic, boils, cooling diuretic, purgative, swelling of muscles, scurvy

 

Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.) Presl. Ex Kunth

Nanka

Pontederiaceae

As et Afr Trop 

250-1000

Rh

Liver complaints, asthma, dysentery, rheumatism, anaemia

 

Portulaca grandiflora L.

Luaniya

Portulacaceae

Reg Calid

600-1500

Lv

Depurative, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, swelling and pain in the pharynx, insect bites, burns, scalds, eczema

 

Portulaca oleracea L.

Luniya

Portulacaceae

Reg Calid

600-1500

Lv

Liver tonic 

 

Anagallis arvensis L.

Jonkmari, Jainghami

Primulaceae

Europe AsTemp

400-2100

Wp

Leprosy, dropsy, Diphtheria and cerebral affection and detach leeches from the body

 

Ranunculus arvensis L.

Chambul

Ranunculaceae

Europe As Bor

500-2000

Wp

Fever, asthma, skin ailment

 

Ranunculus muricatus L.

Chingir

Ranunculaceae

Europ; Oriens

300-1200

Fl

Tonsilites

 

Ranunculus sceleratus L.

Jaldhanya, Aglaon

Ranunculaceae

Reg Bor Temp

500-2000

Wp

Vermifuge, anodyne, skin disorders, considered as poisonous

 

Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focki

Bhiun-kaphal, Kaphlya

Rosaceae

Ind Or. Malaya China

450-2200

Lv

Diarrhoea and leucorrhoea, cut, swelling

 

Potentilla sundaica Kuntze

 

Rosaceae

Ind Or.

400-2500

Rt

Applied externally on itches, adscesses and snake bite

 

Borreria articularis (L.f.) Will.

Guthari, Sathgathia

Rubiaceae

Ind Or.

300-1000

Sd, Lv

Dysentery, haemorrhoids and diarrhoea, antifertility,  body ache, gum trouble, skin diseases, stimul, ulcers, wounds, tooth ache, eye diseases

 

Galium aparine  L.

Khuskusa, Kuri

Rubiaceae

Reg. bor. temp. et Magell.

300-2800

Lv

Astrigent and skin diseases, cuts, burns

 

Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lamk.

Daman-papar

Rubiaceae

Ind Or.

300-2500

Wp, Rt

Fever, liver diseases, gastric, irritation, jaundice, malariv nervous depression, burning sensation in palms, soles

 

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Penn.

Pani-brahmi

Scrophulariaceae

Cosmop. 

300-1200

Lv, Wp

Epilepsy, rheumatic pains, memory, abdominal pain, cough, cooling, headache, eczema, fever, boils, ringworm, tonic, blood purifier, laxative

 

Limnophila rugosa (Roth.) Merr.

Karpurya

Scrophulariaceae

As Trop Ins Pacif

300-1200

Lv

Stomachache

 

Lindenbergia indica (L.) Ktze.

 

Scrophulariaceae

Ind Or.

300-2000

Lv

Bronchitis, cuts, wounds

 

Mazus pumilus Van Steen.

Mastyar

Scrophulariaceae

Afr.; Austr.

250-2000

Lv

Burns, Colic pain

 

Scoparia dulcis L.

Atisirsa, Mithi-patti

Scrophulariaceae

Reg Trop

300-1000

Wp, Rt, Lv

Ulcer of tongue, tonic, urinary troubles, gonorrhoea, digenstion, antiemethic, fever

 

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.

Sada, Sadevi

Scrophulariaceae

Reg Bor Temp

250-2500

Wp

Cuts, burns and sores

 

Physalis minima L.

Damphu

Solanaceae

Geront Trop

300-1500

Lv, Wp, St

Gastric troubles, ear ache, stomach ache, abdominal disorders, fever

 

Physalis peruviana L.

Rashbhari

Solanaceae

Reg. Calid.

500-2200

Lv,Fr

Boils, dbdominal disorders in pregnancy

 

Solanum nigrum L.

Makoi

Solanaceae

Venezeula

300-2800

Lv, Fr

Diarrhoea, fever, lever complains, dysentery, piles, skin diseases, stomach ache throat trouble, cough, eye complains, goiter, rheumatism, ulcer in mouth, heart ailment, urinary complains, inflamation of kidney, bladder, scrotum and testicles

 

Solanum surattense Burm.f.

Bhuiakhanderi, Barkatali

Solanaceae

Geront Trop

250-1500

Fr, Rt, Fl

Fever, cough, asthma, blisters boils, chest pain, gonorrhoea, gum trouble, paralysis, piles, tooth ache tooth decay, migraine, dropsy, eye complains, scropain bites, urinary complains

 

Solanum viarum Dunal.

Kacharia

Solanaceae

Brass

400-1500

Fr,Sd

Tooth ache worms teeth, contraspetive, mensural complains

 

Corchorus aestuans L.

Titpatti

Tiliaceae

Amer Trop 

400-1000

Sd

Dyspepsia

 

Corchorus olitorius L.

Kosta

Tiliaceae

Cosmop Trop

500-1000

Lv

Fever

 

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.

Leswa-kura, Chiryari

Tiliaceae

Reg Trop

500-1500

Rt, Fr, Lv

Cuts, facilitate delivery, dysentery, stomachache

 

Urtica dioica L.

Kandali, Kagoos

Urticaceae

Reg Bor  Temp

500-3600

Lv, Rt

Injury, Contrasceptic, ripening of boils, internal injury 

 

Phyla nodiflora (L.) A. Rich

Jal-butti, Jal-pipali

Verbenaceae

Amphig Trop

250-1400

Wp, Lv

Cooling, Diuretic, fever, boils, menstrual complaints, postnatal fever

 

Viola betonicifolia Sm.

Vanfsa, Phori

Violaceae

Austr. Ins.; Norflok

500-1800

Wp

Fever, cough, diaphoretic, skin diseases, blood diseases

 

Viola pilosa Bl.

Vanfsa, Kauru

Violaceae

Ind Or. Malaya China

500-3000

Wp

Diaphoretic, body ache, emetic, asthma, bronchitis, wounds and cuts, lungs diseases

 

Costus speciosus Sm.

Keu, Keun

Zingiberaceae

Ind Or.; Malaya

300-1500

Lv, Rh

Fever, bronchitis, cough, cold, constipation, cholera, indigestion, giddiness, scabies, wounds, vermifuge, headache, jaundice

 

SHRUBS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adhatoda zeylanica L.

Baisingu, Basing

Acanthaceae

As Trop

300-1500

Lv, Rt, Fl

Cough and cold, asthma, brochitis, malaria, eczema, rheumatism, antiseptic, pulmonary infections, antispasmodic, fever, anthelmintic, joint dislocation, swelling

 

Carissa opaca Stap.

Karaunda, Karamarda

Apocynaceae

Ins Molucc

300-1200

Rt, Fr

Purgative, fever, cough, diarrhoea

 

Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.

Kura, Kuri, Dudhi

Apocynaceae

As Trop

300-1200

Bk, Lv, Sd

Dysentery, asthma, febrifuge, apetite, colic, constipation, cough

 

Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz.

Sarpagandha

Apocynaceae

Ind Or. Java 

300-1000

Rt

Epilepsy, intestinal disorders, nervous disorders, malaria, insomnia, blood pressure, fever, anxiety, vomiting, anthelmintic

 

Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) Br.

Chandni, Jangli-chameli

Apocynaceae

Ind Or.

300-800

Rt, La, Lv, Fl

Toothache, skin diseases, sores, fever, headache, boils, eye diseases, anthelmintic

 

Phoenix acaulis Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.

Khajuri

Arecaceae

Ind Or. Burma

300-700

St, Rh

Masticatory, lactation, brochitis, cough, fever

 

Calotropis procera Br.

Aak, Madar

Asclepiadaceae

Peruv Afr Trop Ind Or.

300-800

La, Rt, Lv

Asthma, cold and cough, cholera, dropsy, eczema, leprosy, rheumatism, spleen complaints, skin diseases, stomach disorders

 

Artemisia nilagirica (Cl.) Pamp.

Kunjaa

Asteraceae

Reg Temp Bor 

300-1500

Lv, St, Wp

Stomach pain, intestinal worms, antihelminthic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, epilepsy, headache, asthma, menstrual complaints, nervous disorders, peptic ulcer, skin diseases, wounds, sores, tonic, 

 

Inula cappa (Ham. Ex D.Don) DC.

Athhu, Tamagari

Asteraceae

Reg. Himal. Java China

300-2500

Rt

Suppressed urination, measles

 

Buddleia asiatica Lour

Bhati

Buddlejaceae

As. Trop.; Malaya

400-1500

Lv, Rt

Abortifacient, skin diseases, inflamation

 

Capparis zeylanica L.

Bauri

Capparaceae

Ind Or.

500-800

Fr, RtBk, Lv,

Diabetes, blisters, boils, cholera, pleuricy, pneumonia, piles, rheumatism, sores, swelling in testicles, ulcer, anthelmintic

 

Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa Austin

Behaya

Convolvulaceae

Bras.

250-1000

Lv

Cuts and wounds, sparain

 

Antidesma acidum Retz.

Amli, Sharschant and Dhakki

Euphorbiaceae

Ind Or. Malaya Austr Afr Trop

400-1000

Lv,Rt, Fr

Blood Dysentery, muscular pain,pneumonia, dropsy, vener diseases and bite of rabid dog

 

Ricinus communis L.

Arand, Andi

Euphorbiaceae

Reg Trop

300-2500

Sd,Lv, Rt

Skin diseases, sores, gum trouble, cholera, boils, constipation, dysentery, dydrocle, joint pain, vermicide, muscular pain,  head ache, burns, purgative

 

Securingea virosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) Pax. and Hoffm.

Athaina,Rithoul

Euphorbiaceae

China

300-1800

Rt

Purgative and aphrodisiac, constipation, stomacache, bone fracture

 

Aeschynomene indica L.

Laugauni

Fabaceae

Ind Or.

400-800

Wp

Impotency and fever

 

Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merr.

Bhanjabasa, Charariaw

Fabaceae

As Trop

600-1800

Wp

Cholera, blindness, cold, dysentery, pain in body, muscles, spleen problem, small pox and stomachache

 

Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Ait.

Ajhar, Chauranga

Fabaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

400-2300

Rt, Lv, Fr

Epilepsy, gastric, hysteria, leucorrhoea, skin diseases, tonic and analagnic

 

Tephrosia candida (Roxb.)D.C.

 

Fabaceae

Amphig Trop

250-800

Lv

 Sores

 

Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.

Kandai, Kangu

Flacourtiaceae

Ind Or. Malaya Madag

400-1600

Fr, Lv, Bk,

Hepatitis, rabbies, burning sensation in chest, diarrhoea, wounds, eczema, rheumatism, cholera, skin diseases, wet foot, mouth diseases

 

Colebrookia oppositifolia Sm.

Binda, Bindu, Bhirmoli

Lamiaceae

Ind Or. Burma

300-1800

St, Rt, Lv

Wounds, toothache, sores, eye diseases, hysteria, epilepsy, cuts, burns, cough, adulterant to tobacco

 

Pogostemon benghalense (Burm.f.) Ktze.

Kala-basingu, Lujrya

Lamiaceae

Ind Or.

300-2500

Lv, Wp, Rt

Fever, colic, wounds, cuts, haemorrhoea

 

Asparagus adscendens Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.

Jhirni, Kairu

Liliaceae

Reg. Himal; Afghan.

250-1800

Rt, Lv

Abortifacient, used in dysuria, diabetes, dysentery, aphrodisiac, galactagogue, tonic, veterinary medicines

 

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz.

Dhaula, Dhau

Lythraceae

As et Afr Trop

400-1500

Lv, Bk, Fl

Haemorrhoides and tonic, cooling, cough, dysentery, fever, injuries, night blindness, bleeidng in pregnancy, loss of appetite in pregnancy, skin diseases, sores, spleen complaints, sprain, syphilis, ulcer, veterenary sores and ulcers

 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

Gudhal

Malvaceae

Geront Trop

400-700

Bk, Fl, Rt

Emolient, abortificient, antifertility, bronchitis, child birth, contraceptive, cough, fever, gonorrhoea, kidney diseases, menstrual complaints, urinary complaints, to wash hair

 

Urena lobata L.

Chatkura, Unga

Malvaceae

Cosmop Trop

400-1500

Lv, Fl, Rt, Bk

Diarrhoea, Dysentery, expectorant, body pain, rheumatism, lumbago, hyperacidity, hydrophobia

 

Mimosa himalayana Gamble

Kingrei, Aila

Mimosaceae

Ind Or.

450-1500

Lv

Cough, cold, bronchitis and urinary complaints

 

Ficus palmata Forsk.

Fagu

Moraceae

Afr Trop Arab Ind Or.

600-2000

La, Fr

Sores, constipation, stomachache

 

Ardisia solanacea Roxb.

Gardagulanj

Myrsinaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

400-1200

Rt, Bk

Postnatal treatment, headache, snake bite

 

Embelia robusta Roxb.

Gaia

Myrsinaceae

Ind Or.

250-800

Fr, Rt, Lv

Cathartic, Anthelmintic, especially to expel tapeworm

 

Pittosporum nepaulense Reh. and Wilson

Tumri, Raini

Pittosporaceae

Ind.or. (Himal; Sikkim)

400-1200

Bk

Bronchial and skin ailments

 

Rhamnus virgata Roxb.

Chentuli, Choudelu

Rhamnaceae

Nepal

500-2400

Bk

Ringworm, emetic, purgative and eczema

 

Rubus ellipticus Sm.

Hinssar

Rosaceae

Ind Or. 

500-2000

Fr,Rt

Dysentry, malaria, stomach ache and worms

 

Rubus niveus Thunb.

Anchu

Rosaceae

Reg. Himal.

400-2500

Fr

Taken in dismenorrhoea and snake bite, stomachache

 

Catunaregam spinosa Trivengadum

Maindul, Mainfal

Rubiaceae

Geront Trop

300-1000

Fr, Bk

Dyspepsia, asthma, cough, and anthelmintic

 

Coffea benghalensis Heyne ex Roem.

Akubfagee-rip

Rubiaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

300-800

Fr, Lv

Fever

 

Pavetta indica L. ssp. tomentosum Bennet

Angari, Kankra

Rubiaceae

As et Austr Trop

300-1200

Lv, Rt

Dropsy and jaundice

 

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spr.

Gandela, Gani

Rutaceae

Ind Or.

300-1500

Rt, Lv

Anthelmintic, diarrhoea, dysentery, eruptions, laxative, malarial fever, stomach complaints, good for hair, piscicide and insecticide

 

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack.

Machula, Kamini

Rutaceae

As et Austr Trop Polynesia

250-1400

Fl, Fr

Cough,  cold

 

Dodonaea viscosa (L.)Jacq.

Santha, Vellari

Sapindaceae

Cosmop. trop. et subtrop.

250-2000

Lv, Fr

Cuts, wounds, intestinal worms, cold

 

Solanum khasianum Cl.

Charra

Solanaceae

Reg. Himal.

300-1500

Fr, Sd

Cold, cough, asthma, bronchitis, headache, insect bite, toothache, tooth decay

 

Solanum torvum Sw.

Bhurat

Solanaceae

Cosmop Trop

300-1000

Lv, Fr,Rt

Wounds, tooth ache, skin diseases, spleen enlargment, stomach ache and malaria

 

Helicteres isora L.

Marorphali

Sterculiaceae

As et Austr Trop

300-1500

Rt, Lv, Fr

Diarrhoea, spasmodic pain, intestinal worms, stomach ache, vomiting, 

 

Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.

Daiya, Bhirmoli

Verbenaceae

Ind Or.

300-1400

Fr, Lv

Oral aphthae, rheumatic pain, blister, boils on toungue, cuts, headache, indigestion, abdominal troubles, ulcers and wounds

 

Caryopteris odorata (D.Don.)Robinson

 

Verbenaceae

Reg. Himal.

300-1000

Lv

Abortifacient

 

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Ktze

Chingori, Bharangi

Verbenaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

250-1000

Rt, Lv

Abortifacient, cholera and bronchitis

 

Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon

Ban-bakri

Verbenaceae

Ind Or. Burma

350-1500

Rt, Lv

Bronchitis and antidote to snake bite

 

Clerodendrum viscosum  Vent 

Bhanua, Bhant

Verbenaceae

Malaya

250-1500

Lv

Fever, fits, headache, bodyache, boils, gastric troubles, laxative, vermifuge, skin diseases, chest pain, ulcer, swelling, sores, promotes hair growth, rheumatism, tonic

 

Duranta repens L.

 

Verbenaceae

Amer Trop 

250-1600

Lv, St

Used as a stimulating wash for ulcers,expectorant, form a constituent of the well-known Ayurvedic preparation Dasmula

 

Lantana camara L.

Kuri-ghas, Laltenya

Verbenaceae

Amer Trop 

250-2000

Lv

Ringworm, itching, skin diseases, malaria, rheumatism, germicidal, insecticidal

 

Vitex negundo L.

Shiwali, Siwain

Verbenaceae

As Trop et Sub trop

250-2000

Lv, Fr, Rt, Fl

Rheumatism, sprains, headache, bone fracture, blisters, boil, cold, bodyache, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, expectorant, leprosy, gout, gum trouble, itching, leprosy, paralysis, pneumonia, postnatal treatment, toothache, vermifuge, insect repelent, syphilis, scabies, skin diseases, eczema, diarrhoea, cold, diuretic, piles, gout, reduce sex desire, epilepsy, dropsy, arthritis, anthelmintic, analgesic

 

TREES

 

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

Kalmina, Jhinghan

Anacardiaceae

As et Afr Trop

300-1500

Lv, Bk

Diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, stomach ache, sores, swell, ulcer and wounds

 

Mangifera indica L.

Aam, Amra

Anacardiaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

300-1000

Bk, Sd

Haemorrhage, diarrhoea

 

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.br.

Chatiyan

Apocynaceae

Geront Trop

300-800

Bk, La

Fever, malaria, diarrhoea, headache, sinusitis, leprosy, wounds

 

Thevetia peruviana Merrill

Kaner

Apocynaceae

Am. trop.

300-1600

Rt, Bk

Cough, bronchitis, bronchitasis, leprosy, Can enhance the musscles of heart and lungs

 

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent.

Tantia, Arula

Bignoniaceae

As Trop

300-1500

Bk, Fr, Lv, Rt

 

 

Stereospermum chelonoides DC.

Padeli, Paral

Bignoniaceae

Ind Or. Burma

400-1200

Rt, Bk, Sd

Stomachache, rheumatism, malaria, liver complaints, asthma, cholera, dysentery,  nervous diseases. Used in the preparation of Dashamoolarist

 

Bombax ceiba L.

Semal, Salmali

Bombacaceae

Amer Austr

400-1600

Fl,Gum

Aphrodisiac, digestive disorders,pimples, anaemia, asthma, chicken pox, cholera, gonorium, leprosy

 

Garuga pinnata Roxb.

Titmar, Kaikar

Burseraceae

Ind Or.Malaya

300-600

Bk, Fr,

Diabetes, asthma, astring, dysentery, wounds, skin diseases, vener diseases

 

Bauhinia purpurea L.

Guiral, Kwiryal

Caesalpiniaceae

Ind Or. Malaya Burma China

400-700

Bk, Lv, St, Fl

Astring, wounds, stomach, bone fracture, small-pox, rheumetic and dropsy

 

Bauhinia racemosa Lamk.

Jhinghora, Kachnal

Caesalpiniaceae

Ind Or. Malaya China

500-1200

Bk, Fr

Dysenetry and diarrhoea

 

Bauhinia variegata L.

Guiral, Kuiral

Caesalpiniaceae

Ind Or. Burma China

400-1900

Lv, Bk

Leprosy, pile (bleeding), ,a;aroa, worms, dysentery, indigation, fatness, syphilis

 

Cassia fistula L.

Kirala, Amaltas

Caesalpiniaceae

As Trop

400-1500

Lv, Fr

Blood purification, asthma, antifertility, antiseptic, burn, dog bite, cough, diarr, gastric, leprosy, jaundice, liver problem, ringworm, stomach ache, tooth ache, swell of throat, pimples, cancer, blindness, dysuria, epilepsy indigation and syphil

 

Terminalia alata Roxb.

Ashna, Sain

Combretaceae

Ind Or.

400-1500

Bk, Fr, Sd

Anaemia, antiemet, burns, cholera dysentery, fever, haematuria, loose motions, sores, stomach ache and wounds

 

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.)Roxb.

Bahera, Bibhitak

Combretaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

400-1300

Fr,Sd,

Cough, asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, gastric, dysuria, cool, leprosy, liver problem, piles, stomach ache, muscular pain and prugative

 

Terminalia chebula Retz.

Triphala', Haira, Har, Harara

Combretaceae

As Trop

400-1200

Fr,Sd,

Bronchitis, cold, constipation, dysuria, eczema, dysentery, measles, sore, pneumonia, stomach and spleen problem

 

Dillenia indica L.

Chalta

Dilleniaceae

As Trop

250-1000

Fr, Lv

Dyspepsia, bronchitis, edible

 

Shorea robusta Gaertn.

Sal

Dipterocarpaceae

Ind Or.

500-1000

Resin, Bk, Sd

Diarrhoea, dysentery, gonorrhoea, loose motion

 

Diospyros malabarica (Descr.) Kost.

Gab, Kala-tendu

Ebenaceae

Afr Trop

450-700

Fr, Bk

Dyspepsia and diarrhoea

 

Diospyros montana Roxb.

Pinna

Ebenaceae

As Trop

450-1000

Fr, Rt, Bk

Cracks in sole, Abortion, dysuria, fever, facilitate delirvery, jaundice, pneumonia, vomiting, diarrhoea

 

Cordia dichotoma Forst.f.

Lasora, Lisora, Koda

Ehretiaceae

As. trop.

300-1200

Sd, Lv, Fr,

Urticaria, ulcer, dyspepsia, expectorant, stomach ache, urinary complaints, jaundice, cholera, cold, cough, chest infection, lung diseases, constipation

 

Ehretia acuminata Br.

Pudila, Nara

Ehretiaceae

As et Austr Trop

300-2000

Fr, Bk

Sores on tongue, edible

 

Ehretia laevis Roxb.

Chamror, Khoda

Ehretiaceae

As et Austr Trop

250-1600

Lv

Bodyache, muscular pain, syphilis, diphtheria

 

Bridelia retusa (L.) Sprengel

Gauli, Ekadaniya

Euphorbiaceae

Ind Or.; Malaya

300-1000

Lv, Rt

Diarrhoea, used for gargle

 

Drypetes roxburghii (Andr.) Focke

Juti, Pitmar

Euphorbiaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

400-1500

Lv

Paste used in skin allergy

 

Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Anwala, Aola, Aonla

Euphorbiaceae

As Trop

300-2000

Fr, Lv, Bk

Bronchitis, asthma, cooling, burns, constipation, headache, stomach ache, dorpsy, madness, liver problems, diabetes, revive taste, dysentery

 

Euphorbia tirucalli L.

Kharsani

Euphorbiaceae

Ind Or.; Afr. or.

400-1500

La

Bodyache, eczema, wounds, toothache, earache, scabies, rheumatism, warts

 

Jatropha curcas L.

Pahari-arand, safed-arand

Euphorbiaceae

Amphig Trop

300-1200

Sd, La,

Anthelmintic, rheumatism, skin diseases, purgative, pneumonia, pleurisy, chest congestion, cough, onflamation, burns, cancer, abortifacient, syphilis, toothbrush

 

Mallotus philippensis Muell.-Arg.

Rohni, Sindur, Ruin

Euphorbiaceae

As et Austr Trop

300-1800

Fr, Sd, Rt

Anthelmintic, blisters, rheumatism, boils, dysentery, skin diseases, snake bite, tonic for pregnant women, ulcer, vermifuge, constipation

 

Sapium sebiferum Roxb.

Pahari-Shisham

Euphorbiaceae

Reg. trop.

300-600

Fr

Purgative and emetic

 

Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub.

Dhak, Tesu

Fabaceae

Ind Or. Burma

400-1200

Fl,Sd

Anthelmintic, antisepctic, blood purifier, tonic and indigestion

 

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Sisham

Fabaceae

Ind Or. Afghan

350-1400

Lv, St

Gonorrhoea, headache, dysentery, leprosy and skin diseases

 

Ougeinia dalbergioides (Roxb.) Hochr.

Sandan,

Fabaceae

Ind Or.

400-1500

St, Lv

Bronchitis, cholera, diarrhoea, asthma and dysentery

 

Casearia elliptica Willd

Chila, Chillak

Flacourtiaceae

As. trop.; Austr.

400-1000

Lv, Bk, Fr

Anthelmintic, wounds, blisters,stomach ache, sprain, head ache, enlarged scrotum, tonic 

 

Casearia graveolens Dalzell

Chilla, Chillak

Flacourtiaceae

Ind Or.

400-1800

Rt, Bk, Sd

Liver complaint, stomachache

 

Xylosma longifolia Clos.

Khand-gair, Sialu, Katrai

Flacourtiaceae

Reg. Himal.

450-1200

Bk

Stomachache

 

Cinnamomum camphora Nees

Kapoor

Lauraceae

China, Japan

400-1000

Gum, oil

Fever, cough, chest pain, diarrhoea, rheumatsm, cholera, toothache

 

Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) Robins.

Singrau

Lauraceae

Reg. Himal.

600-2000

Bk, Lv

Bone fracture

 

Michelia champaca L.

Champa

Magnoliaceae

Malaya

300-1000

Bk, Rt, Fl

Inflamatory, antifertlility, asthma, cholera, bronchitis, menstrual complaints, dysentery, fever, mucus in urine, menorrhoea, sores, ulcer, boils

 

Kydia calycina Roxb.

 Phuilau, Pulao

Malvaceae

Ind Or. Burma

400-1000

Bk, Lv, Rt

Body swellings, body pain, boils, diabetis, febrifuge, increases saliva, inflamation, rheumatism

 

Azadirachta indica Juss.

Neem, Nimba

Meliaceae

Ind Or.

300-1000

Fr, Lv

Antiseptic, skin diseases, kill lice, diabetes and spermicide

 

Melia azedarach L.

Dainkan, Bakain

Meliaceae

Reg. Himal.

250-1000

Lv, Fr

Abortifacient, wormicides, antiseptic, rheumatic pain, skin diseases

 

Toona ciliata Roem.

Tun, Toon, Cedrla

Meliaceae

Malaya Austr

300-1000

Bk, Lv

Fever, gastric troubles, dysentery and antiseptic

 

Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.

Karah

Mimosaceae

As Trop Austr

400-800

Sd

Powder used in gonorrhoea

 

Artocarpus lakoocha Buch-Ham.

Dhau, Barhar

Moraceae

India

500-1000

Sd

Conjuctivitis

 

Ficus benghalensis L.

Barhad,

Moraceae

Ind Or. Afr Trop

500-1200

La, Arial Rt.

Dysentery, sores, boils, diruretic, epilepsy, fever, head ache, hydrocycle, kidney disease, leucorrhoea

 

Ficus hispida L.f.

 

Moraceae

As. et. ; Austr. trop.

300-1500

Sd, Fr, Bk, la

Purgative, emetic, galactagogue, ulcer in mouth, facilitate calf-laying 

 

Ficus religiosa L.

Pipal

Moraceae

Ind Or.

500-1600

Fr, Bk

Skin ailment, bronchitis, abortifacient, asthma, carbuncle, cholera, rheumatism, sores in mounth, toothache, small pox, urinary complaints, whooping cough, tonic, gonorrhoea, haematostat, skin diseases

 

Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex  Sm.

Khainu

Moraceae

Ins Selebes

300-1700

Fr, Bk

Leprosy

 

Morus alba L.

Shahtut, Tutri

Moraceae

As Temp

300-1200

Fr, Bk

Vermicidal, purgative, refrigerent, dyspepsia, sore throat

 

Careya arborea Roxb.

Kumbhi

Myrtaceae

Ind Or.

400-1000

Lv, Bk, Fl, Fr

Swelling in face, fistula, ey diseases, fistula, cold and cough, amoebiasis, fish poison, seeds said to be poisonous

 

Psidium guajava L.

Amrood, Mansala

Myrtaceae

Amer Trop

400-1200

Bk, Lv

Throat infections, diarrhoea

 

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Jamun, Phalenda

Myrtaceae

As et Austr Trop

400-900

Lv,Sd,Fr, Bk

Anaemia, astringent, colic, cancer, diarrhoea, diabetes, piles, digestive problem

 

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Kura, Harsingar

Oleaceae

Ind Or.

300-1500

Lv, Bk, Fr

Bone fracture, cough, fever, dysentery, indigestion, internal injury, malaria, rheumatism, scales on scalp, skin disease, sores, ulcer, scitica, obescity

 

Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.

Ber, Ajapriya, Badra

Rhamnaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

300-1200

Fr, Lv, Rt

Dysentery, headache, digestion, rheumatism, cough, wounds, fever, eye diseases, diarrhoea, cholera, colic, blood furification, sore, spleen problem and ulcer

 

Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. Ex Don.

Garhmehan, Soh-shur

Rosaceae

Reg. Himal.

400-2600

Lv

Eye problem and digestive disorder

 

Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk.) Rich. Ex Walp.

Kadamb

Rubiaceae

China

300-900

Bk, Fr

Skin diseases, pimples, dysentery, sores, fever, cholera, veterinary foot and mouth diseases, snake bite

 

Salix tetrasperma Roxb.

Gad-bhains, Jalmalya

Salicaceae

Ind Or.; Malaya

400-1400

Bk

Fever

 

Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken.

Kusum, Koshamra

Sapindaceae

Ind Or. Malaya

300-1200

Sd, Bk, Fr

Hair tonic, pleurisy, pneumonia, fever, itching, rhematism, skin diseases, wounds, ulcer, paralysis cool, cholera and burn

 

Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl.

 

Tiliaceae

As et Afr Trop

500-1200

Rt, Fr, Bk, Lv

Syphilis 

 

Celtis australis L.

Khairk

Ulmaceae

Ind Or.; As. temp.; Europe

600-2000

Bk

Pimples, contusions, sprains and joint pains

 

Broussonetia papyrifera Vent.

 

Urticaceae

 

250-1000

Fr, Lvs, Bk, Sap, St

Tonic for liver and kidneys, blood defficiency, vertigo, impotence, gonorrhoea, dysentery, neurodermatitis, eczema, bee-sting

 

Premna mucronata Cl.

Akond, Gauntia

Verbenaceae

Ind Or.

300-1200

Bk, Fr, St,

Eczema, throat pain, boils, febrifuge